Advertisement

GeoJournal

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 175–188 | Cite as

The distribution and configuration of tree cover in urban Hong Kong

  • Jim C. Y. 
Article

Abstract

The urban tree cover of a sample area in Hong Kong, selected for its exceptionally good tree cover that penetrate the built-up matrix, was mapped at 1∶5000 scale using aerial photographs. Distribution and configuration of cover was quantified by systematic line sampling. Sampled segments were assigned to appropriate habitat types, urban zones and land uses. Chi-square analysis was employed to detect associations between some observed pairs. Attributes to characterize tree cover and habitats were proposed. Tree cover was found predominantly on slopes well mixed with the urban matrix. Patches of trees in roadside habitats and offroad open spaces were small and disconnected in rigid geometric patterns. Natural slopes unaffected by urban development supported woodlands at high elevation outside the city boundary. Cover in artificial or natural residual slopes (undeveloped slopes embedded within the urban matrix) showed wide variations. Most of the narrow curvilinear units were oriented along contours and situated between roads and buildings. Cover and segment size increased progressively from coastal reclaimed zones to the upslope lands. Areas of high-density land use had scanty cover; most tree cover was found outside subdivided lots in places of lower density land use. Topographical control of urban morphology, habitat and cover characteristics were evident. The dimension, orientation and connectedness of the largely unplanned residual-slope cover were inadequate as wildlife refuges. The principles and possible applications of island biogeography theory in the urban setting was assessed. The dynamic interaction between urbanization and tree cover was summarized. Potential for neighborhood nature parks should not be wasted. Possibilities to protect and enhance tree cover and mould its configuration in a landscape plan in existing and new urban areas were discussed.

Keywords

Tree Cover Wildlife Refuge Segment Size Urban Zone Urban Tree 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bernatzky, A.: Tree ecology and preservation. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1978.Google Scholar
  2. Bristow, R.: Land-use planning in Hong Kong: history, policies and procedures. Oxford University Press, Hong Kong 1984.Google Scholar
  3. Cole, L.: Urban opportunities for a more natural approach. In: Bradshaw, A. D.; Thorp, E. H. P. (eds.), Ecology and design in landscape, pp. 417–431. Blackwell, Oxford 1986.Google Scholar
  4. Cole, L.; Mullard, J.: Woodlands in urban areas — a resource and refuge. Arboricultural Journal 6, 295–300 (1982).Google Scholar
  5. Crowe, T. M.: Lots of weeds: insular phytogeography of vacant urban lots. Journal of Biogeography 6, 169–181 (1979)Google Scholar
  6. Detwyler, T. R.: Vegetation of the city. In: Detwyler, T. R.; Marcus, M. G. (eds.), Urbanization and thze environment — the physical geography of the city, pp. 229–259. Duxbury Press, Belmont, California 1972.Google Scholar
  7. Detwyler, T. R.; Marcus, M. G. (ed.), Urbanization and environment: the physical geography of the city. Duxbury Press, Belmont, California 1972.Google Scholar
  8. Douglas, I.: The urban environment. Edward Arnold, London 1983.Google Scholar
  9. Frenkel, R. E.: Ruderal vegetation along some California roadsides. University of California Press, Berkeley 1970.Google Scholar
  10. Goldstein, E. L.; Gross, M.; DeGraaf, R. M.: Wildlife and green space planning in medium-scale residential developments. Urban Ecology 7, 201–214 (1983)Google Scholar
  11. Goode, D. A.; Smart, P. J.: Designing for wildlife. In: Bradshaw, A. D.; Goode, D. A.; Thorp, E. H. P. (eds.), Ecology and design in landscape, pp. 219–235. Blackwell, Oxford 1986.Google Scholar
  12. Grey, G. W.; Deneke, F. J.: Urban forestry. Wiley, New York 1978.Google Scholar
  13. Halverson, H. A.; Rowntree, R. A.: Correlations between urban tree crown cover and total population in height U.S. cities. Landscape and Urban Planning 13, 219–223 (1986)Google Scholar
  14. Harris, L. D.: The fragmented forest. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1984.Google Scholar
  15. Henke, H.; Sukopp, H.: A natural approach in cities. In: Bradshaw, A. D.; Goode, D. A.; Thorp, E. H. P. (eds.), Ecology and design in landscape, pp. 307–324. Blackwell, Oxford 1986.Google Scholar
  16. Iizumi, S.: The urban vegetation of Tokyo and Sendai, Japan. In: Holzner, W.; Werger, M. J. A.; Ikusima, I. (eds.), Man's impact on vegetation, pp. 335–340. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague 1983.Google Scholar
  17. Jim, C. Y.: Street trees in high-density urban Hong Kong. Journal of Arboriculture 12, 10, 257–263 (1986)Google Scholar
  18. Jim, C. Y.: The status and prospects of urban trees in Hong Kong. Landscape and Urban Planning 14, 1, 1–20 (1987)Google Scholar
  19. Kellman, M. C.: The influence of accessibility on the composition of vegetation. Professional Geographer 22, 4, 1–4 (1970)Google Scholar
  20. MacArthur, R. H.; Wilson, E. O.: The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey 1967.Google Scholar
  21. Manning, O.: Designing for nature in cities. In: Laurie, I. C. (ed.), Nature in Cities, pp. 3–36. Wiley, New York 1979.Google Scholar
  22. McBride, J.; Jacobs, D.: Urban forest development: a case study, Menlo Park, California. Urban Ecology 2, 1–14 (1976)Google Scholar
  23. Mueller-Dombois, D.; Ellerberg, H.: Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. Wiley, New York 1974.Google Scholar
  24. Ross, S. M.: Vegetation change on highway verges in south-east Scotland. Journal of Biogeography 13, 109–117 (1986)Google Scholar
  25. Rowntree, R. A.: Forest cover and land use in four Eastern United States cities. Urban Ecology 8, 55–67 (1984)Google Scholar
  26. Sanders, R. A.: Configuration of tree canopy cover in urban land uses. Geographical Perspective 51, 49–53 (1983)Google Scholar
  27. Sanders, R. A.: Some determinants of urban forest structure. Urban Ecology 8, 13–27 (1984)Google Scholar
  28. Sanders, R. A.; Stevens, J. C.: Urban forest of Dayton, Ohio: a preliminary assessment. Urban Ecology 8, 91–98 (1984)Google Scholar
  29. Scott, D.; Greenwood, R. D.; Moffatt, J. D.; Tregay, R. J.: Warrington new town: an ecological approach to landscape design and management. In: Bradshaw, A. D.; Goode, D. A.; Thorp, E. H. P. (eds.), Ecology and design in landscape, pp. 143–160. Blackwell, Oxford 1986.Google Scholar
  30. Schabel, H. G.: Urban forestry: some lessons from Germany. In: Proceedings of Convention of the Society of American Foresters, September 1982, at Cincinnati, pp. 340–345. Ohio, SAF Publication 83-04, Washington, DC 1983.Google Scholar
  31. Schmid, J. A.: Urban vegetation: a review and Chicago case study. University of Chicago, Department of Geography Research Paper No. 161. 1975.Google Scholar
  32. Seddon, B.: Introduction to biogeography. Duckworth, London 1971.Google Scholar
  33. Segal, S.: Notes on wall vegetation. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague 1969.Google Scholar
  34. Snedecor, G. W.; Cochran, W. G.: Statistical methods. 7th edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa 1980.Google Scholar
  35. So, C. L.: Mass movement associated with the rainstorm of June 1966 in Hong Kong. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 53, 55–65 (1971)Google Scholar
  36. SPSS Inc.: SPSS/PC+for the IBM/PC/XT/AT. SPSS Inc., Chicago 1986.Google Scholar
  37. Sukopp, H.; Blume, H. P.; Kunick, W.: The soil, flora, and vegetation of Berlin's waste lands. In: Laurie, I.C (ed.), Nature in cities, pp. 115–132. Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  38. Sukopp, H.; Werner, P.: Urban environments and vegetation. In: Holzner, W.; Werger, M. J. A.; Ikusima, I. (eds.), Man's impact on vegetation, pp. 247–260. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague 1983.Google Scholar
  39. Thrower, L. B.: The vegetation of Hong Kong. In: Thrower, L. B. (ed.), The vegetation of Hong Kong, pp. 21–43. Royal Asiatic Society, Hong Kong 1975.Google Scholar
  40. Thrower, L. B.: Hong Kong country parks, Government Information Services, Hong Kong 1984.Google Scholar
  41. Town Planning Division: Town planning in Hong Kong. Government Lands Department, Hong Kong 1984.Google Scholar
  42. Tregay, R.: Urban woodlands. In: Laurie, I.C. (ed.), Nature in cities, pp. 267–295. Wiley, New York 1979.Google Scholar
  43. Tregear, T. R.; Berry, L.: The development of Hong Kong and Kowloon as told in maps. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong 1959.Google Scholar
  44. Way, J. M.: Roadside verges and conservation in Britain: a review. Biological Conservation 12, 65–74 (1977)Google Scholar
  45. Woodell, S.: The flora of walls and pavings. In: Laurie, I.C. (ed.), Nature in cities, pp. 135–157. Wiley, New York 1979.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jim C. Y. 
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geography and GeologyUniversity of Hong KongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations