AI & SOCIETY

, Volume 14, Issue 3–4, pp 300–313 | Cite as

The artificial between culture and nature

Article
  • 89 Downloads

Abstract

This paper aims to show that to think of the artificial means to think at the same time of man, nature, culture and society not as separate entities but as elements of one and the same system; since, in its field of action, the artificial articulates its component dimensions, which altogether are natural, human, cultural and social. Usually we call artificial both the procedure through which we project the realisation of something and the product of our project: the realisation of the artefact. The artefact incorporates, in the physical and inanimate dimensions of nature, those dimensions which are proper to the producer. When the artificial imitates and reproduces certain aspects of nature, its action is directed towards achieving an improvement in man's life. In this perspective, we think that the artificial cannot be viewed as a factor external to man and man's social life.

Keywords

Anthropology Artefact Artificial Nature Technique 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Balandier, G. (1994). Le Dédale: Pour en finir avec le xxo siècle. Fayard, Paris.Google Scholar
  2. Bergson, H. (1963). L'evolution créatrice. InOeuvres. PUF, Paris.Google Scholar
  3. Canguilhem, G. (1995). La connaissance de la vie. Vrin, Paris.Google Scholar
  4. Flichy, P. (1995). L innovation technique: Récents développements en sciences sociales. La Decouverte, Paris.Google Scholar
  5. Gehlen, A. (1957). Die Seele im technischen Zeitalter. Rowohlt, Hamburg.Google Scholar
  6. Janicaud, D. (1985). La Puissance du rationnel. Gallimard, Paris.Google Scholar
  7. Janicaud, D. (ed.) (1987). Les pouvoirs de la science. Vrin, Paris.Google Scholar
  8. Jorland, G. (ed.) (1992). Des tecnologies pour demain. Ed. du Seuil, Paris.Google Scholar
  9. Langton, C.G. (1992). Vita artificiale.Sistemi intelligenti. no. 2.Google Scholar
  10. Leroi-Gourhan, A. (1977). Le Geste et la Parole. A. Michel, Paris.Google Scholar
  11. Lovelock, J. (1991). Gaia: The Practical Science of Planetary Medicine. Gaia Books, London.Google Scholar
  12. Morin, E. (1986). La connaissance de la connaissance. Seuil, Paris.Google Scholar
  13. Munford, L. (1950). Technique et civilisation. Ed. du Seuil, Paris.Google Scholar
  14. Munford, L. (1973–74). Le mythe de la machine. Fayard, Paris.Google Scholar
  15. Negrotti, M. (ed.) (1995). Artificialia. Clueb, Bologna.Google Scholar
  16. Negrotti, M. (1997). La terza realtà. Dedalo, Bari.Google Scholar
  17. Noble, D.F. (1984). Forces of Production: A Social History of Industrial Automation. A. Knopf, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Rapp, F. (1981). Analytical Philosophy of Technology. Reidel, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  19. Schelsky, H. (1981). Der Mensch in der wissenschaftlich-technischen Zivilisation, Westdeutscher, Opladen.Google Scholar
  20. Schluchter, W. (1987). Il paradosso della razionalizzazione (Italian translation). Liguori, Naples.Google Scholar
  21. Seris, J.-P. (1994). La technique. PUF, Paris.Google Scholar
  22. Simondon, J. (1958). Du mode d'existence des objets techniques, Aubier, Paris.Google Scholar
  23. Somenzi, V. (ed.) (1965). La filosofia degli automi. Boringhieri, Turin.Google Scholar
  24. Stengers, I. and Schlanger, J. (1989). Les concepts scientifiques: Invention et pouvoir. La Découverte, Paris.Google Scholar
  25. Teilhard de Cardin, P. (1966). L'activation de l'énergie: Oeuvres, Vol. VII. Ed. du Seuil, Paris.Google Scholar
  26. Van der Pot, J.H.J. (1985). Die Bewertung des Tecnischen Fortschrits: Eine systematische Ubersicht der Theorien. Assen, Maastricht.Google Scholar
  27. von Neumann, J. (1965). La logica degli automi e la loro autoriproduzione. In Somenzi, V. (ed.)La filosofia degli automi. Boringhieri, Turin.Google Scholar
  28. Weber, M. (1968). Economia e società (Italian translation). Comunità, Milan.Google Scholar
  29. Weber, M. (1980). Il lavoro intellettuale come professione (Italian translation). Einaudi, Turin.Google Scholar
  30. Wieland, W. (1993). La fisica di Aristotele (Italian translation). Il Mulino, Bologna.Google Scholar
  31. White, L. (1968). Machina ex Deo: Essays in Dynamism of Western Culture. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  32. Winner, L. (1992). Autonomous Technology. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Sociology and Political StudyUniversity of UrbinoItaly

Personalised recommendations