AI & SOCIETY

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 199–217 | Cite as

Design science 97

Article

Abstract

Design of information systems, on the one hand, is often dominated by pure technical considerations of performance, correctness or reliability. On the other hand, sociological analysis of the social impact of information technology is not transfered to operationalised design criteria and to practice. The paper discusses this contradiction and tries to overcome the gap between computer science and social sciences in design by analysing the history of design in architecture and fine arts as well as the approaches of contemporary design-oriented disciplines. Based on this analysis and on the broad discussion about human-centredness, foundations of a new Design Science are outlined. Consequences for the education of computer scientists and software designers are discussed.

Keywords

Design Design science Human-centred systems Social shaping of technology Design education 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, C. (1964) Notes on the synthesis of form. Harvard University Press, Cambridge/MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, C.; Ishikawa, S.; Silverstein, M.; Jacobson, M.; Fiksdahl-King, I.; Angel, S. (1977) A pattern language: Towns, buildings, construction. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Barfield, L.; van Burgsteden, W.; Lanfermeijer, R.; Mulder, B.; Ossewold, J.; Rijken, D.; Wegner, Ph. (1994) Interaction design at the Utrecht School of Arts. In: SIGCHI Bulletin 26(3): 49–86Google Scholar
  4. Bauersfeld, P. (1994) Software by design: Creating people-friendly software. M&T Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Blum, B. (1996) Beyond Programming: To a new era of design. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Bødger, S. (1991) Through the interface: A human activity approach to user interface design. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale/New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  7. Cusumano, M.A. (1989) The software factory: A historical interpretation. IEEE Software, (March 1989), 23–30Google Scholar
  8. Denning, P. J.; Dargan, P. A. (1994) A discipline of software-architecture. Interactions (January 1994), 55–65Google Scholar
  9. di Giorgio Martini, F. (1482) Trattato di architettura [Treatise on architecture], quoted from Günter 1988Google Scholar
  10. Ehn, P. (1988) Work-oriented design of computer artifacts. Arbetslivscentrum, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  11. Ehn, P.; Kyng, K. (1987) The collective resource approach to systems design. In: Bjerknes, G. et al. (eds) Computers and democracy—A Scandinavian challenge. AveburyGoogle Scholar
  12. Evans, M.W. (1989) The software factory. New York etc.Google Scholar
  13. Fernandes, T. (1995) Global interface design. AP Professional, Boston etc.Google Scholar
  14. Finger, S. (ed) (1989) Design theory '88. Springer-Verlag, LondonGoogle Scholar
  15. Friedrich, J. (1996) Industrial culture and software production. In: Rasmussen, L.; Rauner, F. (eds) Industrial cultures and production. Springer-Verlag, Berlin/Heidelberg/New York, 70–83Google Scholar
  16. Gill, K. S. (ed) (1996) Human machine symbiosis. The foundations of human-centred systems design. Springer-Verlag, LondonGoogle Scholar
  17. Günter, R.; Günter, G. (1988) Urbino [in German]. Anabas Verlag, GieflenGoogle Scholar
  18. Hooper, K. (1986) Architectural design: An analogy. In: Norman, D. A.; Draper, St. W. (ed) (1986) User centered design. New perspectives on human-computer interaction. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale/New Jersey, 9–23Google Scholar
  19. Kapor, M. (1991) A software design manifesto: Time for a change. Dr. Dobb's Journal 172 (January, 1991), 62–68Google Scholar
  20. Laurel, B. (1990) Interface agents: Metaphors with character. In: Laurel, B. (ed): The art of human-computer interface design. Addison-Wesley, Reading/MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  21. Laurel, B. (1991) Computers as theatre. Addison-Wesley, Reading/MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  22. Olerup, A. (1991) Design approaches: A comparative study of information system design and architectural design. The Computer Journal, 34(3): 215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mumford, E. (1987) Sociotechnical system design-Evolving theory and practice. In: Bjerknes, G. et al. (eds) Computers and democracy—A Scandinavian challenge. AveburyGoogle Scholar
  24. Naur, P (1992) Computing: A human activity. Addison-Wesley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Norman, D. A. (1990) The design of everyday things. Doubleday, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Norman, D. A.; Draper, St. W. (ed) (1986) User centered design. New perspectives on human-computer interaction. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale/New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  27. Rijken, D. (1995) Designing experience. Online Proceedings of the Doors 2 conference. Http://www.mediamatic.nl/Doors/Doors2/Rijken/Rijken-Doors2-E2.html, 23 February 1995 (last updated), 4 April 1997 (printed)Google Scholar
  28. Suchman, L. (1987) Plans and situated actions. The problem of human-machine communication. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge/MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  29. Sullivan, L. H. (1896) The tall office building. Artistically considered. ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  30. Sundin, B. (ed) Is the computer a tool? Almquist&Wiksell International, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  31. Thackara, J. (ed) (1988) Design after modernism: Beyond the object. Thames and Hudson, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Wiener, N. (1948) Cybernetics, or control and communication in the animal and the machine. Paris, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Winograd, T. (ed) (1996) Bringing design to software. Addison-Wesley, Reading/MassachusettsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Computer Science DepartmentUniversity of BremenGermany

Personalised recommendations