Nasal cancer in leather workers: an occupational disease

The “Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology” publishes in loose succession “Editorials” and “Guest editorials” on current and/or controversial problems in experimental and clinical oncology. These contributions represent exclusively the personal opinion of the authors The Editors

Abstract

Nasal cancer has a number of causative agents; exposures to most of the established nasal carcinogens occur in the workplace. An increased risk of nasal cancer has been ascertained in shoe-making and shoe-repairing, but the results for leather goods manufacture and leather tanning don't provide adequate evidence of carcinogenicity. Findings from two epidemiological studies carried out in Italy (a case/control study and a case/series report) add further information on this issue. The case/control study was performed in the provinces of Siena (Tuscany), Verona and Vicenza (Venetia) including 96 cases and 378 controls. A significant increased risk (Odds Ratio: 6.8; 90% C.I.=1.9–25) of sinonasal cancer was found for the employ in the whole leather industry; Odds Ratio of 8.3 (C.I.=1.9–36) and 5.0 (C.I.=0.92–28) were associated with shoe-making and leather tanning. The case/series report is based on 110 patients accepted in some Italian hospitals during last three years (1990–1993): 26 cases had worked in the leather industry; adenocarcinoma is the most frequent type observed. Chromium salts and natural tannins are indicated as possible aetiological agents.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Acheson ED, Hadfield EH, Macbeth RG (1967) Carcinoma of the nasal cavity and accessory sinuses in woodworkers. Lancet I: 311–312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Acheson ED, Cowdell RH, Jolles B (1970a) Nasal cancer in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry. Br Med J 1: 385–393

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Acheson ED, Cowdell RH, Jolles B (1970b) Nasal cancer in the shoe industry. Br Med J 1: 791

    Google Scholar 

  4. Acheson ED, Cowdell RH, Rang E (1972) Adenocarcinoma of the nasal cavity and sinuses in England and Wales. Br J Ind Med 29: 21–30

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Acheson ED, Cowdell RH, Rang EH (1981) Nasal cancer in England and Wales: an occupational survey. Br J Ind Med 38: 218–224

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Acheson ED, Pippard EC, Winter PD (1982) Nasal cancer in the Northamptonshire boot and shoe industry: is it declining? Br J Cancer 46: 940–946

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Ahlbom A, Axelson O, Hansen ES, Hogstedt C, Jensen UJ, Olsen J (1990) Interpretation of “negative” studies in occupational epidemiology. Scand J Work Environ Health 16: 153–157

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Badaway AAB, White AE, Lathe GH (1969) The effect of tannic acid on the synthesis of protein and nucleid acid by rat liver. Biochem J 113: 307

    Google Scholar 

  9. Bimbi G, Battista G, Belli S, Berrino F, Comba P (1988) Nasal cancer and occupational exposures: a case-referent study. In: Hogstedt C, Reuterwall C (eds) Progress in occupational epidemiology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 99–102

    Google Scholar 

  10. Brinton LA, Blot WJ, Becker JA, Winn DM, Browder JP, Farmer JC, Fraumeni JF (1984) A case-control study of cancers of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Am J Epidemiol 119: 896–906

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Bross IDJ, Viadana E, Houten L (1978) Occupational cancer in men exposed to dust and other environmental hazards. Arch Environ Health 33: 300–307

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Brugère J, Laurent M, Thauh P, Brunin F, Bataini P (1981) Adènocarcinomes de l'éthmoïde. Arch Mal Prof 42: 305

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bush SE, Bagshaw MA (1982) Carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses. Cancer 50: 154–158

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Cecchi F, Buiatti E, Kriebel D, Nastasi L, Santucci M (1980) Adenocarcinoma of the nose and paranasal sinuses in shoemakers and woodworkers in the province of Florence, Italy (1963–77). Br J Ind Med 37: 222–225

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Comba P, Barbieri PG, Battista G, Belli S, Ponterio F, Zanetti D, Axelson O (1992a) Cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses in the metal industry: a case-control study. Br J Ind Med 49: 193–196

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Comba P, Battista G, Belli S, de Capua B, Merler E, Orsi D, Rodella S, Vindigni C, Axelson O (1992b) A case-control study of cancer of the nose and paranasal sinuses and occupational exposures. Am J Ind Med 22: 511–520

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Commission des Communauts Europennes (1990) Santé et sécurité au travail dans la Communauté europenne. Recommandation de la Commission du 22 mai 1990 concernant l'adoption d'une liste europenne des maladies professionnelles (90/326/CEE). Europe Sociale 2/90

  18. Crump KS, Hoel DG, Laugley CH (1976) Fundamental carcinogenic processes and their implications for low dose risk assessment. Cancer Res 36: 2973

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Decouflé P, Walrath J (1983) Proportionate mortality among US shoemakers, 1966–1977. Am J Ind Med 4: 523–532

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Decouflé P, Walrath J (1987) Nasal cancer in the U.S. shoe industry: does it exist? Am J Ind Med 12: 605–613

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Dixon WJ (ed) (1988) BMDP statistical software manual. University of California Press, Berkeley

    Google Scholar 

  22. Doll R (1958) Cancer of the lung and nose in nickel workers. Br J Ind Med 15: 217–223

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Engzell U, Englund A, Westerholm P (1978) Nasal cancer associated with occupational exposure to organic dust. Acta Otolaryngol 86: 437–442

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Fukuda K, Shibata A (1988) A case-control study of past history of nasal diseases and maxillary sinus cancer in Hokkaido, Japan. Cancer Res 48: 1651–1652

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Gardner MJ, Winter PD (1984) Extensions to a technique for relating mortality and environment—Exemplified cancer and industry. Scan J Environ Health 10: 219–223

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Grimm H-G, Hartung M, Valentin H, Wolf J (1984) Über das Vorkommen von Adenokarzinomen der Nasenhaupt- und Nasennebenhöhlen bei Holzarbeitern. Empirisch-kasuistische Studie. Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin, Präventivmedizin, Sonderheft 4

  27. Hausen BM (1981) Wood injurious to human health. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin New York

    Google Scholar 

  28. Hayes RB, Raatgever JW, Bruyn A de, Gerin M (1986a) Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, and formaldehyde exposure. Int J Cancer 37: 487–492

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Hayes RB, Gerin M, Raatgever JW, Bruyn A de (1986b) Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer. Am J Epidemiol 124: 569–577

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Hueper WC (1965) Chemical carcinogenesis and cancer. Thomas: Springfield, Ill

    Google Scholar 

  31. Hueper WC (1966) Occupational and environmental cancers of the respiratory system. Recent Results Cancer Res 3: 59–85

    Google Scholar 

  32. IARC (1987) Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum Suppl 7: 232–237

    Google Scholar 

  33. IARC (1990a) Exposures in the textile manufacturing industry. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 48: 215–280

    Google Scholar 

  34. IARC (1990b) Chromium. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum 49–256

  35. Isaacs JH, Mooney S, Mendenhall WM, Parsons JT (1990) Cancer of the maxillary sinus treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy. Am Surg 56: 327–330

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Keen P, De Moor NG, Shapiro MP, Cohen L (1955) The aetiology of respiratory tract cancer in the South African Bantu. Br J Cancer 9: 528–538

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Kligerman M, Lattes R, Rankow R (1960) Carcinoma of the maxillary sinus following thorotrast instillation. Cancer 13: 967–973

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Kirby KS (1960) Induction of tumours by tannin extracts. Br J Cancer 14: 147

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Korpassy B (1961) Tannins as hepatic carcinogens. Prog Exp Tumor Res 2: 245

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. Leclerc A, Luce D (1993) Occupational factors of sinonasal cancers. In: Hirsch et al (ed) Prevention of respiratory diseases. Dekker, New York, pp 97–115

    Google Scholar 

  41. Luce D, Leclerc A, Morcet JF, Casal-Laero A, Gerin M, Brugére J, Haguenoer J, Goldberg M (1992) Occupational risk factors for sinonasal cancer: a case-control study in France. Am J Ind Med 21: 163–175

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Loi AM, Amram DL, Bramanti L, Roselli MG, Giacomini G, Simi U, Belli S, Comba P (1989) Nasal cancer and exposure to wood and leather dust. A case-control study in Pisa area. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 8: 13–19

    Google Scholar 

  43. Macbeth R (1965) Malignant disease of the paranasal sinuses. J Laryngol 79: 592–612

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. Magnani C, Ciambellotti E, Salvi U, Zanetti R, Comba P (1989) Incidenza dei tumori delle cavità nasali e dei seni paranasali nel comprensorio di Biella, 1970–1986. Acta Otorhinol Ital 9: 511–519

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. Maier A (1993) Mitteilungen über Nasentumore, verursacht durch organische Stäube bei Berufen ohne Holzstaubexposition. Dissertation, Essen 1993

  46. Malker HSR, McLaughlin JK, Blott WJ, Weiner JA, Malker BK, Ericcson JLE, Stone BJ (1986) Nasal cancer and occupation in Sweden, 1961–1979. Am J Ind Med 9: 477–485

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Mantel N, Haenszel W (1959) Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 23: 719–748

    Google Scholar 

  48. Merler E, Baldasseroni A, Laria R, Faravelli P, Agostini R, Pisa R, Berrino F (1986) On the causal association between exposure to leather dust and nasal cancer: further evidence from a case-control study. Br J Ind Med 43: 91–95

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. Montesano R (1981). In: Bogovski P et al.: Panel discussion. Extrapolation from animal experiments to humans. In: Vainio H, Sorsa M, Hemminki K (eds) Occupational cancer and carcinogenesis; Hemisphere, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  50. Muir C, Waterhouse J, Mach T, Powell J, Whelan S (eds) (1987) Cancer incidence in five continents. V. IARC Sci Publ 88: 864–865

  51. Nylander LA, Dement JM (1993) Carcinogenic effects of wood dust: review and discussion. Am J Ind Med 24: 619–647

    PubMed  CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. O'Gara RW (1968) Biologic screening of selected plant material for carcinogens. Cancer Res 28: 2272

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. O'Gara RW, Lee C, Morton F (1971) Carcinogenicity of extracts of selected plants from curacao after oral and subcutaneous administration to rodents. J Nat Cancer Inst 46: 1131

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. O'Gara RW, Lee C, Morton JF, Kapadia GJ, Dunham LJ (1974) Tumor induced in rats by extracts of plants and by fractionated extracts of “Krameria ixina”. J Natl Cancer Inst 52: 445

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Olsen JH (1988) Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark. Br J Ind Med 45: 329–335

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Pippard EC, Acheson ED (1985) The mortality of boot and shoe makers, with special reference to cancer. Scand J Work Environ Health 11: 249–255

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. Pippard EC, Acheson ED, Winter PD (1985) Mortality of tanners. Br J Ind Med 42: 285–287

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. Randell RA (1990) Nasal cancer and mineral oil. Lancet I: 56

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Reddy JK, Chiga M, Harris CC, Svoboda DJ (1970) Polyribosome disaggregation in rat liver following administration of tannic acid. Cancer Res 30: 58

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  60. Roush GC, Meigs JW, Kelly J, Flannery JT, Burdo H (1980) Sinonasal cancer and occupation: a case-control study. Am J Epidemiol 111: 183–193

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Rüttner JR, Makek M (1985) Mucinose Adenokarzinome der Nasen und Nasennebenhöhlen eine Berufskrankheit? Schweiz Med Wochenschr 115: 1838–1842

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Shanmugaratnam K, Sobin LH (1978) Types histologiques des tumeurs des voies aériennes supérieures. Organisation Mondiale de la Santé, Genève

    Google Scholar 

  63. Takasaka T, Kawamoto K, Nakamura K (1987) A case-control study of nasal cancers. An occupational survey. Acta Otolaryngol Suppl (Stockh) 435: 136–142

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. Vetrugno T, Comba P (1987) Indagine policentrica sui tumori del naso e dei seni paranasali e le attività lavorative in Italia 1983–1985. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 7: 485–494

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. Wada S, Nishimoto Y, Miyanish M, Kambe S, Miller RW (1968) Mustard gas as a cause of respiratory neoplasia in man. Lancet I: 1161–1163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Wolf J, Hartung M, Schaller KH, Kochem W, Valentin H (1986) Über das Vorkommen von Adenokarzinomen der Nasenhaupt- und Nasennebenhöhlen bei Holzarbeitern — Weitere Untersuchungen (II) — Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin, Präventivmedizin, Sonderheft 7

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to G. Battista.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Battista, G., Comba, P., Orsi, D. et al. Nasal cancer in leather workers: an occupational disease. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 121, 1–6 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01202722

Download citation

Key words

  • Nasal cancer
  • Occupation
  • Leather industry
  • Case/control study
  • Case
  • Series report