Skip to main content

Effect ofDermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae) on blood composition, weight gain and hair coat of moose,Alces alces

Abstract

The physiological effects of the winter tick,Dermacentor albipictus, on moose,Alces alces, were investigated. Blood composition, weight gain, food intake and change in the hair coat of moose calves, four infested withD. albipictus larvae, and eight uninfested, were monitored. Infested moose groomed extensively, apparently in response to feeding nymphal and adult ticks, and developed alopecia. Other clinical signs included: chronic weight loss, anemia, hypoalbumenemia, hypophosphatemia, and transient decreases in serum asparate transaminase and calcium during the period of nymphal and adult female tick engorgement. Infested animals did not become anorexic. Two moose with severe hair loss had increases in gamma globulin shortly after the onset of female tick engorgement. Results suggest that alopecia is associated with tick resistance. Animals that groom and develop hair loss likely carry fewer ticks and therefore suffer less severely from blood loss.

References

  • Alexander, H.D. and Kiesel, G.K., 1965. The effect of blood loss on weight gain, hemoglobin and hematocrit in lambs fed different levels of protein. Auburn Vet, 21: 114–117, 129.

    Google Scholar 

  • Anderson, R.C. and Lankester, M.W., 1974. Infectious and parasitic disease and arthropod pests of moose in North America. Nat. Can., 101: 23–50.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bennett, G.F., 1969.Boophilus microplus (Acarina: Ixodidae): Experimental infestations on cattle restrained from grooming. Exp. Parasitol., 26: 323–328.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bermes, E.W. Jr., Erviti, V. and Forman, D.T., 1976. Statistics, normal values, and quality control. In: N.W. Tietz (Editor), Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 60–102.

    Google Scholar 

  • Corrier, D.E., Vizcaino, O., Terry, M., Betancourt, A., Kutter, K.L., Carson, C.A., Trevino, G. and Ristic, M., 1979. Mortality, weight loss and anemia inBos taurus calves exposed toBoophilus microplus ticks in the tropics of Colombia. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 11: 215–221.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dreizen, S., 1979. Nutrition and the immune response — a review. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 49: 220–228.

    Google Scholar 

  • Giovaniello, T.J., Di Benedetto, G., Palmer, D.N. and Peter, T. Jr., 1968. Fully automated method for the determination of serum iron and total iron binding capacity. In: Automation in Analytical Chemistry, Technicon Symposia 1967, Vol. 1. Medlab Inc., White Plains, N.Y., pp. 185–188.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gladney, W.J., Graham, O.H., Trevino, J.L. and Ernst, S.E., 1973.Boophilus annulatus: effect of host nutrition on development of female ticks. J. Med. Entomol., 10: 123–130.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Glines, H.V. and Samuel, W.M., 1984. The development of the winter tick,Dermacentor albipictus, and its effects on the hair coat of moose,Alces alces, of central Alberta, Canada. In: D.A. Griffiths and C.E. Bowman (Editors), Acarology VI, Vol. 2. Ellis Horwood, Chichester, pp. 1208–1214.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grant, G.H. and Kachmar, J.F., 1976. The proteins of body fluids. In: N.W. Tietz (Editor), Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 298–376.

    Google Scholar 

  • Henry, R.J. and Reed, A.H., 1974. Normal values and the use of laboratory results for the detection of disease. In: R.J. Henry, D.C. Cannon and J.W. Winkelman (Editors), Clinical Chemistry. Harper and Row, Hagerstown, Md., pp. 343–372.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hewetson, R.W., 1971. Resistance by cattle to cattle tick,Boophilus microplus. III. Development of resistance to experimental infestation by purebred sahiwal and shorthorn cattle. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 22: 331–342.

    Google Scholar 

  • Houston, D.B., 1969. A note on the blood chemistry of the Shiras moose. J. Mammal., 50: 826.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jellison, W.L. and Kohls, G.M., 1938. Tick-host anemia: a secondary anemia induced byDermacentor andersoni Stiles. J. Parasitol., 24: 143–154.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koudstaal, D., Kemp, D.H. and Kerr, J.D., 1978.Boophilus microplus: rejection of larvae from British breed cattle. Parasitology, 76: 379–386.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • McLaughlin, R.F. and Addison, E.M., 1986. Tick (Dermacentor albipictus)-induced winter hair-loss in captive moose (Alces alces). J. Wildl. Dis., 22: 502–510.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Murie, O.J., 1951. The Elk of North America. Stockpole Co., Harrisburg, PA., and the Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C., 376 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • O'Kelly, J.C. and Siefert, G.W., 1970. Effects of tick (Boophilus microplus) infestations on the blood composition of shorthorn×Hereford cattle. II. Changes in blood composition. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 23: 681–690.

    Google Scholar 

  • O'Kelly, J.C., Seebeck, R.M. and Springell, P.H., 1971. Alterations in host metabolism by the specific and anorectic effects of the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus). II. Changes in blood composition. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 24: 381–389.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Preston, R.L., Schakenberg, D.D. and Pfander, W.H., 1965. Protein utilization in ruminants. I. Blood urea nitrogen as affected by protein intake. J. Nutr., 86: 281–288.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rechav, Y., Kuhn, H.G. and Knight, M.M., 1980. The effects of the tickAmblyomma hebraeum (Acari: Ixodidae) on blood composition and weight of rabbits. J. Med. Entomol., 17: 555–560.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Renecker, L.A. and Hudson, R.J., 1985. Estimation of dry matter intake of free-ranging moose. J. Wildl. Manage., 49: 785–792.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rich, G.B., 1973. Grooming and yarding of spring-born calves prevents paralysis caused by the Rocky Mountain wood tick. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 53: 377–378.

    Google Scholar 

  • Riek, R.F., 1957. Studies on the reactions of animals to infestation with ticks. II. Tick toxins. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 8: 215–223.

    Google Scholar 

  • Samuel, W.M. and Barker, M.J., 1979. The winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus Packard, 1869) on moose,Alces alces (L.), of central Alberta. Proc. N. Am. Moose Conf. Workshop, 15: 303–348.

    Google Scholar 

  • Samuel, W.M., Welch, D.A. and Drew, M.L., 1986. Shedding of the juvenile and winter hair coats of moose (Alces alces) with emphasis on the influence of the winter tick,Dermacentor albipictus, Alces, 22: 345–360.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schwartz, C.C., Regelin, W.L. and Franzmann, A.W., 1980. A formulated ration for captive moose. Proc. N. Am. Moose Conf. Workshop, 16: 82–105.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seebeck, R.M., Springell, P.H. and O'Kelly, J.C., 1971. Alterations in host metabolism by the specific and anorectic effects of the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus). I. Food intake and body weight growth. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 24: 373–380.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Snowball, G.J., 1956. The effect of self-licking by cattle on infestations of cattle tick,Boophilus microplus (Canestrini). Aust. J. Agric. Res., 7: 227–232.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, F.J., 1969. Biometry. The Principles and Practices of Statistics in Biological Research. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, 776 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Springell, P.H., O'Kelly, J.C., and Seebeck, R.M., 1971. Alterations in host metabolism by the specific and anorectic affects of the cattle tick (Boophilus microplus). III. Metabolic implications of blood volume, body water, and carcass composition changes. Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 24: 1033–1045.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wallach, J., 1978. Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests. Little, Brown and Co., Boston, 639 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Webb, R., 1959. Mighty mite the moose tick. Alberta Land For. Wildl., 2: 3–7.

    Google Scholar 

  • Welch, D.A., Drew, M.L. and Samuel, W.M., 1985. Techniques for rearing moose calves with resulting weight gains and survival. Alces, 21: 475–491.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wikel, S.K., 1982. Immune responses to arthropods and their products. Ann. Rev. Entomol., 27: 21–48.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wikel, S.K. and Allen, J.R., 1983. Immunological basis of host resistance to ticks. In: F.D. Obenchain and R. Galun (Editors), The Physiology of Ticks. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp. 169–196.

    Google Scholar 

  • Willadsen, P., 1980. Immunity to ticks. Adv. Parasitol., 18: 293–313.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Woolf, A., Nadler, C.F. and Kradel, D.C., 1973. Serum protein electrophoresis in bighorn sheep with chronic pneumonia. J. Wildl. Dis., 9:7–11.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Glines, M.V., Samuel, W.M. Effect ofDermacentor albipictus (Acari: Ixodidae) on blood composition, weight gain and hair coat of moose,Alces alces . Exp Appl Acarol 6, 197–213 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01193980

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01193980

Keywords

  • Alopecia
  • Hair Loss
  • Hypophosphatemia
  • Adult Tick
  • Hair Coat