Skip to main content
Log in

Environmental factors affecting the life-tables ofTetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) III. Host-plant nutrition

  • Published:
Experimental & Applied Acarology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

First, the literature of the last two decades on nutritional effects of host plants on spider mites is briefly reviewed. Second, experiments are described that subjected micro-propagated apple trees to four different levels of each macronutrient N, P and K. Spider mites (Tetranychus urticae Koch) feeding on leaf disks of these plants were checked for their developmental time, egg production and longevity. Plant analysis revealed that the concentration of N, P and K corresponded to the respective treatments. The content of phenolic compounds in the leaves increased with N and P deficiency. In the N experiment, spider-mite preimaginal developmental rate and oviposition rate were both positively correlated with leaf N. Often, fecundity was positively correlated with N and carbohydrate content of the leaves, and negatively with the phenolic content. Longevity of the two-spotted spider mite was not significantly affected by any treatment. The K experiments yielded only minor differences in plant contents as well as in spider-mite biology.

From these mite data, file-tables were constructed and statistically analyzed by the Jackknife technique. The life-table analysis showed a gradual decline in the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r m) with N and P deficiency. With all experiments pooled,r m was clearly correlated to leaf N and particularly to the content of phenolic compounds in the leaves. Nitrogen shortage had the most distinct influence on mite population growth: in a range of 1.5–3.0% leaf N,r m increased by a factor of 4, the number of multiplications per generation (R 0) by 11, and the doubling time of the population was prolonged 4-fold on severely N deficient leaves.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Abou-Awad, B.A., 1981. Effect of nitrogen and manganese fertilization on the tetranychid mite,Tetranychus arabicus Attiah, and resulting effect on yield of cotton plants. Bull. Soc. Entomol. Egypte, 63: 95–98.

    Google Scholar 

  • Allen, S.E., Grimshaw, H.M., Parkinson, J.A. and Quarmby, C. (Editors), 1974. Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials. Blackwell, Oxford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Archer, T.L., Bynum, E.D. Jr. and Onken, A.B., 1988. Abundance of Banks grass mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) on corn and sorghum fertilized with different rates of nitrogen and phosphorus. J. Econ. Entomol., 81: 300–303.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carey, J.R. and Bradley, J.W., 1982. Developmental rates, vital schedules, sex ratios, and life tables forTetranychus urticae, T. turkestani andT. pacificus (Acarina: Tetranychidae) on cotton. Acarologia, 23: 333–345.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dale, D., 1988. Plant-mediated effects of soil mineral stresses on insects. In: E.A. Heinrichs (Editor), Plant Stress-Insect Interactions. Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 35–110.

    Google Scholar 

  • Efron, B., 1982. The Jackknife, the Bootstrap and other resampling plans. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, PA, 92 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Epstein, E. (Editor), 1972. Mineral Nutrition of Plants: Principles and Perspectives. Wiley, New York.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fritzsche, R., Wolffgang, H., Reiss, E. and Thiele, S., 1980. Untersuchungen zu den Ursachen sortenbedingter Befallsunterschiede von Apfelbäumen mitOligonychus ulmi Koch. Arch. Phytopathol. Pflanzenschutz, 16: 193–198.

    Google Scholar 

  • Herbert, H.J., 1981. Biology, life tables, and innate capacity for increase of the twospotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Can. Entomol., 113: 371–378.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ishaaya, I., 1986. Nutritional and allelochemic insect-plant interactions relating to digestion and food intake: some examples. In: J.R. Miller and T.A. Miller (Editors), Insect-Plant Interactions. Springer, New York, pp. 191–223.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson, P.R. and Hunter, P.E., 1983. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer level on development and populations of the pecan leaf scorch mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 76: 432–435.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jesiotr, L.J., Suski, Z.W. and Badowska-Czubik, T., 1979. Food quality influences on a spider mite population. In: J.G. Rodriguez (Editor), Recent Advances in Acarology, Vol. I. Academic Press, New York, pp. 189–196.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kondo, A. and Takafuji, A., 1982. Effect of host quality on sex ratio in the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Jpn. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool., 26: 200–202.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krebs, C.J., 1989. Ecological Methodology. Harper & Row. New York, 654 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lane, H.C. and Schuster, M.F., 1981. Condensed tannins of cotton leaves. Phytochemistry, 20: 425–427.

    Google Scholar 

  • Larson, K.C. and Berry, R.E., 1984. Influence of peppermint phenolics and monoterpenes on two-spotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae). Environ. Entomol., 13: 282–285.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mattson, W.J. Jr., 1980. Herbivory in relation to plant nitrogen content. Annu. rev. Ecol. Syst., 11: 119–161.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mellors, W.K. and Propts, S.E., 1983. Effects of fertilizer level, fertility balance, and soil moisture on the interaction of two-spotted spider mites (Acarina: Tetranychidae) with radish plants. Environ. Entomol., 12: 1239–1244.

    Google Scholar 

  • Meyer, J.S., Ingersoll, C.G., McDonald, L.L. and Boyce, M.S., 1986. Estimating uncertainty in population growth rates: Jackknife vs. Bootstrap techniques. Ecology, 6: 1156–1166.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perring, T.M., Archer, T.L., Johnson, J.W. and Phillips, J.M., 1982. Evaluation of several grain sorghum characteristics for resistance to the Banks grass mite. J. Econ. Entomol., 75: 257–260.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perring, T.M., Archer, T.L., Krieg, D.L. and Johnson, J.W., 1983. Relationships between the banks grass mite (Acariformes: Tetranychidae) and physiological changes of maturing grain sorghum. Environ. Entomol., 12: 1094–1098.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rajaratnam, J.A. and Law Ing Hock, 1975. Effect of boron nutrition on intensity of red spider mite attack on oil palm seedlings. Exp. Agric., 11: 59–63.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sharma, B.L. and Pande, Y.D., 1986. A study of relationship between the population ofTetranychus neocaledonicus Andre (Acarina: Tetranychidae) and external characteristics of cucurbit leaves and their NPK contents. J. Adv. Zool., 7: 42–45.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sokal, R.R. and Rohlf, F.J., 1981. Biometry. W.H. Freeman, San Francisco, 859 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Southwood, T.R.E. (Editor), 1978. Ecological Methods, With Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations. Chapman & Hall, New York, 524 pp.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sternlicht, M., Regev, S. and Goldenberg, S., 1975. Effect of chemical deficiencies in nutrient solutions on the reproduction ofAceria sheldoni (Acarina, Eriophyidae). Bull. Entomol. Res., 65: 433–442.

    Google Scholar 

  • Suski, Z.W. and Badowska, T., 1975. Effect of host plant nutrition on the population of the two spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina, Tetranychidae). Ekol. Pol., 23: 185–209.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tulisalo, U., 1971. Free and bound amino acids of three host plant species and various fertilizer treatments affecting the fecundity of the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina, Tetranychidae). Ann. Entomol. Fenn., 37: 155–163.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van der Geest, L.P.S., 1985. Studies on artificial diets for spider mites. In: W. Helle and M.W. Sabelis (Editors), Spider Mites, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, Vol. A. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp. 383–390.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van de Vrie, M. and Delver, P., 1979. Nitrogen fertilization of fruit tress and its consequences for the development ofPanonychus ulmi populations and the growth of fruit trees. In: J.G. Rodriguez (Editor), Recent Advances in Acarology, Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York, pp. 23–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Van de Vrie, M., McMurtry, J.A. and Huffaker, C.B., 1972. Ecology of tetranychid mites and their natural enemies: a review. III. Biology, ecology, and pest status, and host-plant relations of tetranychids. Hilgarida, 41: 343–432.

    Google Scholar 

  • Watson, T.F., 1964. Influence of host plant condition on population increase ofTetranychus telarius (Linnaeus) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Hilgardia, 35: 273–322.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wermelinger, B., 1985. Einfluss des Ernährungszustandes der Wirtspflanze auf den Befall durch die Gemeine Spinnmilbe (Tetranychus uritcae Koch). Ph.D. thesis, ETH Zürich/CH, 99 pp.

  • Wermelinger, B., 1989. Respiration of the two spotted spider mite as affected by leaf nitrogen. J. Appl. Entomol., 108: 208–212.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wermelinger, B. and Delucchi, V., 1990. The effect of sex ratio on the multiplication of the twospotted spider mite as affected by leaf nitrogen. Exp. Appl. Acarol., 9: 11–18.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wermelinger, B., Oertli, J.J. and Delucchi, V., 1985. Effect of host plant nitrogen fertilization on the biology of the two-spotted spider mite,Tetranychus urticae. Entomol. Exp. Appl., 38: 23–28.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wermelinger, B., Baumgärtner, J., Zahner, Ph. and Delucchi, V., 1990a. Environmental factors affecting the life tables ofTetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina). I. Temperature. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges., 63: 55–62.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wermelinger, B., Schnider, F., Oertli, J.J. and Baumgärtner, J., 1990b. Environmental factors affecting the life tables ofTetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina). II. Host plant water stress. Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Ges., 63: 347–357.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wilson, L.T., Smilanick, J.M., Hoffmann, M.P., Flaherty, D.L. and Ruiz, S.M., 1988. Leaf nitrogen and position in relation to population parameters of Pacific spider mite,Tetranychus pacificus (Acari: Tetranychidae) on grapes. Environ. Entomol., 17: 964–968.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wrensch, D.L. and Young, S.S.Y., 1978. Effects of density and host quality on rate of development, survivorship, and sex ratio in the carmine spider mite. Environ. Entomol., 7: 499–501.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yaninek, J.S., Gutierrez, A.P. and Herren, H.R., 1989. Dynamics ofMononychellus tanajoa (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Africa: experimental evidence of temperature and host plant effects on population growth rates. Environ. Entomol., 18: 633–640.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Wermelinger, B., Oertli, J.J. & Baumgärtner, J. Environmental factors affecting the life-tables ofTetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) III. Host-plant nutrition. Exp Appl Acarol 12, 259–274 (1991). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01193472

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01193472

Keywords

Navigation