Skip to main content

The microglial cytoskeleton: vimentin is localized within activated cellsin situ

Summary

Unlike astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, microglia are extremely plastic making them the chameleon among the glial cells in the CNS. This great mutability of the microglial cell shape suggests the presence of an elaborate cytoskeleton which is demonstrated here by applying a new ultrastructural method. Electron microscopic immunocytochemistry shows the presence of vimentin at intermediate filament sites in reactive microglia stimulated by rat facial nerve axotomy. It is suggested that vimentin-expression may serve as a marker for activated states of microglia, including brain macrophages.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Bignami, A., Eng, L. F., Dahl, D. &Uyeda, C. T. (1972) Localization of the glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes by immunofluorescence.Brain Research 43, 429–35.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Blinzinger, K. &Kreutzberg, G. (1968) Displacement of synaptic terminals from regenerating motoneurons by microglial cells.Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie 85, 145–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cammermeyer, J. (1965) Juxtavascular karyokinesis and microglia cell proliferation during retrograde reaction in the mouse facial nucleus.Ergebnisse der Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte 38, 1–22.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Causton, B. E. (1984) The choice of resins for electron immunocytochemistry. InImmunolabelling for Electron Microscopy (edited byPolar, J. M. &Varndell, I. M.), pp. 29–36. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dickson, D. W. (1986) Multinucleated giant cells in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome encephalopathy.Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 110, 967–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Duchen, L. W. (1984) General pathology of neurons and neuroglia. InGreenfield's Neuropathology (edited byAdams, J. H., Corsellis, J. A. N. &Duchen, L. W.), pp. 1–52. London: Edward Arnold.

    Google Scholar 

  • Franke, W. W., Schmid, E., Grund, C. &Geiger, B. (1982) Intermediate filament proteins in nonfilamentous structures: transient disintegration and inclusion of subunit proteins in granular aggregates.Cell 30, 103–13.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Frei, K., Siepl, C., Groscurth, P., Bodmer, S., Schwerdel, C. &Fontana, A. (1987) Antigen presentation and tumor cytotoxicity by interferon-γ-treated microglial cells.European Journal of Immunology 17, 1271–8.

    Google Scholar 

  • Geiger, B. (1987) Intermediate filaments: looking for a function.Nature 329, 392–3.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Giulian, D. (1987) Ameboid microglia as effectors of inflammation in the central nervous system.Journal of Neuroscience Research 18, 155–71.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Goto, M., Meyermann, R. &Wekerle, H. (1987) Ultrastructural immunocytochemistry of glia cells: double labeling studies using LR White embedding and colloidal gold.Histochemistry 87, 201–7.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Graeber, M. B. &Kreutzberg, G. W. (1985) Immunogold staining (IGS) for electron microscopical demonstration of glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protien in LR White embedded tissue.Histochemistry 83, 497–500.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Graeber, M. B. &Kreutzberg, G. W. (1986) Astrocytes increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein during retrograde changes of facial motor neurons.Journal of Neurocytology 15, 363–73.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Graeber, M. B. &Kreutzberg, G. W. (1988) Delayed astrocyte reaction following facial nerve axotomy.Journal of Neurocytology 17, (in press).

  • Graebber, M. B., Streit, W. J. &Kreutzberg, G. W. (1988a) Axotomy of the rat facial nerve leads to increased CR3 complement receptor expression by activated microglial cells.Journal of Neuroscience Research, (in press).

  • Graeber, M. B., Tetzlaff, W., Streit, W. J. &Kreutzberg, G. W. (1988b) Microglial cells but not astrocytes undergo mitosis following rat facial nerve axotomy.Neuroscience Letters 85, 317–21.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kreutzberg, G. W. (1966) Autoradiographische Untersuchung über die Beteiligung von Gliazellen an der axonalen Reaktion im Facialiskern der Ratte.Acta neuropathologica (Berlin) 7, 149–61.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kreutzberg, G. W. (1968) Über perineuronale Mikrogliazellen (autoradiographische Untersuchungen).Acta Neuropathologica (Berlin), Supplement 4, 141–5.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kreutzberg, G. W. (1987) Microglia. InEncyclopedia of Neuroscience (edited byAdelman, G.), pp. 661–2. Boston: Birkhäuser.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kreutzberg, G. W. &Baron, K. D. (1978) 5′-nucleotidase of microglial cells in the facial nucleus during axonal reaction.Journal of Neurocytology 7, 601–10.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Matsumoto, Y. &Fujiwara, M. (1987) Absence of donor-type major histocompatibility complex class I antigen-bearing microglia in the rat central nervous system of radiation bone marrow chimeras.Journal of Neuroimmunology 17, 71–82.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Newman, G. R. &Jasani, B. (1984) Post-embedding immunoenzyme techniques. InImmunolabelling for Electron Microscopy (edited byPolak, J. M. &Varndell, I. M.), pp. 53–70. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  • Osborn, M., Debus, E. &Weber, K. (1984) Monoclonal antibodies specific for vimentin.European Journal of Cell Biology 34, 137–43.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Perry, V. H. &Gordon, S. (1987) Modulation of CD4 antigen on macrophages and microglia in rat brain.Journal of Experimental Medicine 166, 1138–43.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Peters, A., Palay, S. L. &Webster, H. deF. (1976)The Fine Structure of the Nervous System. The Neurons and Supporting Cells, pp. 254–63. Philadelphia: Saunders.

    Google Scholar 

  • Price, R. W., Brew, B., Sidtis, J., Rosenblum, M., Scheck, A. C. &Cleary, P. (1988 The brain in AIDS: central nervous system HIV-1 infection and AIDS dementia complexScience 239, 586–92.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rio-Hortega, P. Del (1932) Microglia. InCytology and Cellular Pathology of the Nervous System (edited byPenfield, W.), pp. 481–534. New York: Hoeber.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schiffer, D., Giordana, M. T., Migheli, A., Giaccone, G., Pezzotta, S. &Mauro, A. (1986) Glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin in the experimental glial reaction of the rat brain.Brain Research 374, 110–8.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sjöstrand, J. (1965) Proliferative changes in glial cells during nerve regeneration.Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie 68, 481–93.

    Google Scholar 

  • Streit, W. J. &Kreutzberg, G. W. (1987) Lectin binding by resting and reactive microglia.Journal of Neurocytology 16, 249–60.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Streit, W. J. &Kreutzberg, G. W. (1988) The response of endogenous glial cells to motor neuron degeneration induced by toxic ricin.Journal of Comparative Neurology 268, 248–63.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Streit, W. J., Graeber, M. B. &Kreutzberg, G. W. (1988) Peripheral nerve lesion produces increased levels of MHC antigens in the CNS.Journal of Neuroimmunology, (in press).

  • Takamiya, Y., Kohsaka, S., Toya, S., Otani, M. &Tsukada, Y. (1988) Immunohistochemical studies on the proliferation of reactive astrocytes and the expression of cytoskeletal proteins following brain injury in rats.Developmental Brain Research 38, 201–10.

    Google Scholar 

  • Tetzlaff, W., Graeber, M. B., Bisby, M. A. &Kreutzberg, G. W. (1988) Increased glial fibrillary acidic protein synthesis in astrocytes during retrograde reaction of the rat facial nucleus.Glia 1, 90–5.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vaughn, J. E. &Peters, A. (1968) A third neuroglial cell type: an electron microscopic study.Journal of Comparative Neurology 133, 269–88.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Graeber, M.B., Streit, W.J. & Kreutzberg, G.W. The microglial cytoskeleton: vimentin is localized within activated cellsin situ . J Neurocytol 17, 573–580 (1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01189811

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01189811

Keywords

  • Glial Cell
  • Facial Nerve
  • Microglial Cell
  • Cell Shape
  • Intermediate Filament