The present study compared levels of self-criticism and of dependency in 20 currently clinically depressed patients, 20 remitted patients, and 20 normal controls. Results from the Depressive Experience Questionnaire (DEQ) and the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI) indicated that currently depressed and remitted patients had equally high levels of self-criticism and of dependency, which were significantly higher than those of normal controls. Dependency and self-criticism of DEQ and IDI scales correlated positively, raising the question of the independence of the two constructs. Overall, results supported the status of self-criticism and dependency as stable vulnerability factors to depression, in that these factors remain active beyond the end of a depressive episode. Discussion about the research methodology is presented.
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We would like to thank Dr. Ian Bradley from the Department of Psychology of the Allan Memorial Institute and Dr. Ronald Remick from the Department of Psychiatry of the Health Sciences Center, for their collaboration in the project. The present study was supported in part by a Quebec Government Graduate Fellowship (F.C.A.R.) awarded to the first author.
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Franche, RL., Dobson, K. Self-criticism and Interpersonal Dependency as vulnerability factors to depression. Cogn Ther Res 16, 419–435 (1992). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01183166
- vulnerability factors