, Volume 12, Issue 1–2, pp 71–77 | Cite as

Simulator-mediated acquisition of a dynamic control skill

  • Jean Hayes Michie
  • Donald MichieEmail author


Uses of stored skill-models to accelerate simulator-based real-time training in a control skill are discussed. A real-time coach must deliver advice at three levels: (1) what to do next, (2) what to watch for, and (3) what went wrong. Human learning and machine learning results are presented using different screen representations of a pole-and-cart balancing task.


Human-centred design Learning systems Real-time tasks Simulators Variability 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Donaldson, P.E.K. (1960). Error decorrelation: a technique for matching a class of functions. Proc. III Internat. Conf. on Medical Electronics. 173–178.Google Scholar
  2. Chambers, R.A. and Michie, D. (1969) Man-machine co-operation in a learning task. In Computer Graphics: Techniques and Applications (eds. R. Parslow, R. Prowse and R. Elliott Green). London: Plenum Publishing Co. 179–186.Google Scholar
  3. Michie, D., Bain, M. and Hayes Michie, J.E. (1990) Cognitive models from subcognitive skills. In Knowledge-Based Systems in Industrial Control (eds. M. Grimble, J. NcGhee and P. Mowforth), Stevenage, UK. Peter Peregrinus. 71–99.Google Scholar
  4. Michie, D. and Sammut, C. (1995) Behavioural clones and cognitive skill models. In Machine Intelligence 14, Oxford University Press. 387–395.Google Scholar
  5. Reber, A.S. (1995) The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology, Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  6. Sammut, C. Hurst, S, Kedzier, D. and Michie, D. (1992) Learning to fly. In Proc. 9th Internat. Machine Learning Conf (ML92) (ed. D.H. Sleeman), San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  7. Seashore, R.M. (1965) Work and motor performance. In Handbook of Experimental Psychology, 7th edition (ed. S.S. Stevens), John Wiley, 1341–62.Google Scholar
  8. Shapiro, A.D. (1987) Structured Induction in Expert Systems, Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  9. Urbančič, T., and Bratko, I. (1994). Reconstructing human skill with machine learning. In Proc. Europ. Conf. on AI (ECAI 94), Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  10. Urbančič, T., Bratko, I. (1995) Controlling Container Cranes: A Case-Study in Reconstruction of Human Skill. Electrotechnical Reviews 62 (3–4), Ljubljana, 199–205. (also in AIT'95 Proceedings (Artificial Intelligence Techniques), eds. J.Zizka, P.Brazdil, Brno, 1995. 113–127).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of StrathclydeUK
  2. 2.Al Applications InstituteUniversity of EdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations