On the basis of laboratory research on self-regulation, it was hypothesized that positive self-monitoring, more than negative self-monitoring or comparison and control procedures, would improve the bowling averages of unskilled league bowlers (N =60). Conversely, negative self-monitoring was expected to produce the best outcome for relatively skillful league bowlers (N =67). In partial support of these hypotheses, positive self-monitors significantly improved their bowling averages from the 90-game baseline to the 9- to 15-game postintervention assessment (Ximprovement = 11 pins) more than all other groups of low-skilled bowlers; higher skilled bowlers' groups did not change differentially. In conjunction with other findings in cognitive behavior therapy and sports psychology, the implications of these results for delineating the circumstances under which positive self-monitoring facilitates self-regulation are discussed.
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Kirschenbaum, D.S., Ordman, A.M., Tomarken, A.J. et al. Effects of differential self-monitoring and level of mastery on sports performance: Brain power bowling. Cogn Ther Res 6, 335–341 (1982). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01173581