Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 8, Issue 5, pp 509–516

Efficacy expectations and outcome expectations as predictors of performance in a snake-handling task

  • Christina Lee
Article

Abstract

Self-efficacy theory proposes that efficacy expectations are central determinants of behavior, but it has argued that expectancies concerning outcome may be more important, or that the two may combine linearly or multiplicatively to determine behavior. A recent study involving role-played assertiveness has found that efficacy expectations are more accurate predictors of performance than are outcome expectations. The present study examines efficacy and outcome expectations as predictors of performance in a snake-handling task with a population of 33 male nonphobic undergraduates. Efficacy expectations are again found to be better predictors of performance than outcome expectations. Linear and multiplicative combinations of the two do not account for more variance than efficacy alone. Thus, it appears that efficacy expectations are more important than outcome expectations in predicting behavior.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aronson, E. (1978). The theory of cognitive dissonance: A current perspective II. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.),Cognitive theories in social psychology. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change.Psychological Review, 84 191–215.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1978a). Reflections on self efficacy.Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1 237–269.Google Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1978b)). The self system in reciprocal determinism.American Psychologist, 33 344–358.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency.American Psychologist, 37 122–147.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A., & Adams, N. E. (1977). Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change.Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1 287–310.Google Scholar
  7. Bandura, A., Reese, L., & Adams, (1982). Microanalysis of action and fear arousal as a function of differential levels of perceived self-efficacy.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43 5–21.Google Scholar
  8. Bandura, A., & Schunk, D. H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41 586–598.Google Scholar
  9. Condiotte, M. M., & Lichtenstein, E. (1981). Self-efficacy and relapse in smoking cessation programs.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49 648–658.Google Scholar
  10. Darlington, R. B. (1968). Multiple regression in research and practice.Psychological Bulletin, 69 161–182.Google Scholar
  11. Davis, F. W., & Yates, B. T. (1982). Self-efficacy expectancies versus outcome expectancies as determinants of performance deficits and depressive affect.Cognitive Therapy and Research 6 23–35.Google Scholar
  12. Devins, G. M., Binik, Y. M., Gorman, P., Dattel, M., McClosky, B., Oscar, G., & Briggs, J. (1982). Perceived self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and negative mood states in end-stage renal disease.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 91 241–244.Google Scholar
  13. Kazdin, A. E. (1978). Conceptual and assessment issues raised by self-efficacy theory.Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1 177–185.Google Scholar
  14. Kirsch, I. (1982). Efficacy expectations or response predictions: The meaning of efficacy ratings as a function of task characteristics.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42 132–136.Google Scholar
  15. Lee, C. (1982). Self-efficacy as a predictor of performance in competitive gymnastics.Journal of Sport Psychology, 4 405–409.Google Scholar
  16. Lee, C. (in press). Accuracy of efficacy and outcome expectations in predicting performance in a simulated assertiveness task.Cognitive Therapy and Research. Google Scholar
  17. Saltzer, E. B. (1982). The relationship of personal efficacy beliefs to behaviour.British Journal of Social Psychology, 21 213–221.Google Scholar
  18. Teasdale, J. D. (1978). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behaviour change?Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1 211–215.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christina Lee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations