Journal of Materials Science

, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 294–323 | Cite as

Structure and plastic deformation of polyethylene

  • L. Lin
  • A. S. Argon
Review

Abstract

A review is given of the structure of semi-crystalline polymers and the mechanisms of plastic deformation in them. High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is taken as the specific example because of the large number of detailed studies performed on this material. The early findings are also compared and contrasted with very recent detailed large-strain deformation studies and computer simulations of deformation-induced texture development in HDPE.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Galeski, Z. Bartczak, A. S. Argon andR. E. Cohen,Macromolecules 25 (1992) 5705.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Z. Bartczak, A. S. Argon andR. E. Cohen,ibid. 25 (1992) 5036.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Idem, ibid. 25 (1992) 4692.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Idem, Polymer in press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. H. Song, A. S. Argon andR. E. Cohen,Macromolecules 23 (1990) 870.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Galeski, A. S. Argon andR. E. Cohen,ibid. 24 (1991) 3953.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Idem, ibid. 24 (1991) 3945.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. Lin andA. S. Argon,ibid. 25 (1992) 4011.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Idem, ibid. in press.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. Bellare, R. E. Cohen andA. S. Argon,Polymer 34 (1993) 1393.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Rakestraw, R. E. Cohen andA. S. Argon, to be published.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. M. Parks andS. Ahzi,J. Mech. Phys. Solids 38 (1990) 701.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Ahzi, D. M. Parks andA. S. Argon, “Computer Modeling and Simulation of Manufacturing Processes” (ASME, New York, 1990) 20, 287.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    B. J. Lee, D. M. Parks andA. S. Argon,J. Mech. Phys. Solids Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    B. M. Lee, A. S. Argon, D. M. Parks, S. Ahzi andZ. Bartczak,Polymer 34, (1993) 3555.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Proceedings of Conference on Crystallization of Polymers, Université de Mons-Hainaut, Belgium, September 1992, in press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. H. Geil, “Polymer Single Crystals” (Interscience, New York, 1963).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. Keller,Rep. Prog. Phys. 31 (Part II) (1968) 623.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. Khoury andE. Passaglia, in “Treatise on Solid State Chemistry”, Vol 3, edited by N. B. Hannay (Plenum, New York, 1976) p. 335.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. H. Till Jr,J. Polym. Sci. 24 (1957) 301.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    A. Keller,Phil. Mag. 2 (1957) 1171.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    E. W. Fischer,Z. Naturforsch. 12A (1957) 753.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. Keller andA. O'Connor,Disc. Faraday Soc. 25 (1958) 114.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Khoury andL. H. Bolz, in “38th Annual Proceedings of the Electron Microscopy Society of America”, San Francisco, California, edited by G. W. Baily (Claitors, Baton Rouge, 1980) p. 242.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    D. H. Reneker andP. H. Geil,J. Appl. Phys. 31 (1960) 1916.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. H. Lindenmeyer,J. Polym. Sci. C 1 (1963) 5.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Gleiter andJ. Petermann,J. Polym. Sci. B 10 (1972) 877.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    W. D. Niegisch andP. R. Swan,J. Appl. Phys. 31 (1960) 1906.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    D. C. Bassett andA. Keller,Phil. Mag. 6 (1961) 345.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. J. Organ andA. Keller,J. Mater. Sci. 20 (1985) 1571.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    T. Kawai andA. Keller,Phil. Mag. 11 (1965) 1165.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    H. D. Keith,J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1964) 3115.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    D. J. Blundell andA. Keller,J. Macromol. Sci-Phys. B2 (1968) 337.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    D. C. Bassett, F. C. Frank andA. Keller,Nature 184 (1959) 810.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Idem, Phil. Mag. 8 (1963) 1739.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Idem, ibid. 8 (1963) 1753.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    A. Keller,Kolloid-Z. Z. Polym. 197 (1964) 98.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    H. D. Keith andF. J. Padden Jr,J. Polym. Sci. 39 (1959) 101.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    A. Keller,ibid. 39 (1959) 151.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    P. H. Lindenmeyer andV. F. Holland,J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1964) 55.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Keller,Nature 169 (1952) 913.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. D. Keith andF. J. Padden Jr,J. Polym. Sci. 41 (1959) 525.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. E. Breedon, J. F. Jackson, M. J. Marcinkowski, andM. E. Taylar Jr,J. Mater. Sci. 8 (1973) 1071.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    P. H. Geil,J. Polym. Sci. C 13 (1966) 149.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    R. P. Palmer andA. J. Cobbold,Makromol. Chem. 74 (1964) 174.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A. Keller andS. Sawada,ibid. 74 (1964) 190.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    A. Keller,J. Polym. Sci. 17 (1955) 351.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    D. C. Bassett andA. M. Hodge,Proc. Roy. Soc. A377 (1981) 25.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    D. C. Bassett, A. M. Hodge andR. H. Olley,ibid. A377 (1981) 39.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    M. I. Bank andS. Krimm,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 7 (1969) 1785.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    R. J. Young andP. B. Bowden,J. Mater. Sci. 8 (1973) 1177.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    P. Allan andM. Bevis,Phil Mag. 41 (1980) 555.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Y. Kikuchi andS. Krimm, in “Plastic Deformation of Polymers”, edited by A. Peterlin (M. Dekker, New York, 1971) p. 7.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    F. Rybnikar,J. Polym. Sci. 44 (1960) 517.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. Peterlin,J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1964) 75.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    J. M. Schultz andR. D. Scott,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 7 (1969) 659.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. Sharples, “Introduction to Polymer Crystallization” (Arnold, London, 1966).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    T. W. Huseby andH. E. Bair,J. Appl. Phys. 39 (1968) 4969.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    R. G. Brown andR. K. Eby,ibid. 35 (1964) 1156.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    J. D. Hoffman, G. T. Davis andJ. I. Lauritzen, in “Treatise on Solid State Chemistry”, Vol 3, edited by N. B. Hannay (Plenum, New York, 1976) p. 497.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    J. D. Hoffman andJ. J. Weeks,J. Chem. Phys. 42 (1965) 4301.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    J. Martinez-Salazar, P. J. Barham andA. Keller,J. Mater. Sci. 20 (1985) 1616.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    P. J. Barham, D. A. Jarvis andA. Keller,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 20 (1982) 1733.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    S. J. Organ andA. Keller,J. Mater. Sci. 20 (1985) 1602.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    P. J. Barham, R. A. Chivers, A. Keller, J. Martinez-Salazar andS. J. Organ,ibid. 20 (1985) 1625.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    E. W. Fischer andG. F. Schmidt,Angew. Chem. 74 (1962) 551.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    D. C. Bassett andA. Keller,J. Polym. Sci. 40 (1959) 565.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    S. J. Organ andA. Keller,J. Mater. Sci. 20 (1985) 1586.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    D. C. Bassett, A. Keller andS. Mitsuhashi,J. Polym. Sci. A 1 (1963) 763.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    B. Wunderlich andT. Arakawa,ibid. 2 (1964) 3697.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    P. H. Geil, F. R. Anderson, B. Wunderlich andT. Arakawa,ibid. 2 (1964) 3703.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    T. Hatakeyama, H. Kanetsuna andT. Hashimoto,J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B7 (1973) 411.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    R. H. Olley andD. C. Bassett,J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 15 (1977) 1011.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    D. C. Bassett andB. Turner,Phil. Mag. 29 (1974) 925.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Idem, Nature, Phys. Sci. 240 (1972) 146.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    M. Yasuniwa, C. Nakafuku andT. Takemura,Polym. J. 4 (1973) 526.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    D. C. Bassett, S. Block andG. J. Piermarini,J. Appl. Phys. 45 (1974) 4146.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    K. Takamizawa, H. Hasegawa andY. Urabe,Polym. Prepr. Jpn 27 (1978) 493.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Y. Maeda andH. Kanetsuna,J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 12 (1974) 2551.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Idem, ibid. 14 (1976) 2057.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Y. Maeda, H. Kanetsuna, K. Tagashira andT. Takemura,ibid. 19 (1981) 1313.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Y. Maeda, H. Kanetsuna, K. Nagata, K. Matsushige andT. Takemura,ibid. 19 (1981) 1325.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    R. A. Fava,J. Polym. Sci. D: Macromol. Rev. 5 (1971) 1.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    A. Keller,Kolloid-Z. Z. Polym. 231 (1969) 386.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    A. Peterlin,J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B3 (1969) 19.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    P. J. Flory,J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 84 (1962) 2857.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    E. W. Fischer andR. Lorenz,Kolloid-Z. Z. Polym. 189 (1963) 97.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    M. Stamm, E. W. Fisher, M. Dettenmaier andP. Convert,Faraday Disc. Chem. Soc. 68 (1979) 263.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    L. Mandelkern,Acc. Chem. Res. 9 (1976) 81.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Idem,,J. Polym. Sci. C 50 (1975) 457.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    F. C. Frank andP. J. Flory, in “Growth and Perfection of Crystals”, edited by R. H. Doremus, B. W. Roberts and D. Turnbull (Wiley, New York, 1958) p. 529.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    F. C. Frank,Faraday Disc. 68 (1979) 7.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    C. M. Guttman, E. A. Dimarzio andJ. D. Hoffman,Polymer 22 (1981) 1466.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    P. H. Lindenmeyer,J. Polym. Sci. C 20 (1967) 145.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    A. Keller andD. J. Priest,J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B2 (1968) 479.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    D. E. Witenhafer andJ. L. Koeing,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 7 (1969) 1279.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    M. I. Bank andS. Krimm,J. Appl. Phys. 40 (1969) 4248.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    A. J. Kovacs, A. Gonthier andC. Straupe,J. Polym. Sci. C 50 (1975) 283.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    E. N. Dalal andP. J. Phillips,Macromolecules 17 (1984) 248.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    D. C. Bassett, “Principles of Polymer Morphology” (Cambridge University Press, London, 1981).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    F. C. Frank andM. Tosi,Proc. Roy. Soc. A263 (1961) 323.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    J. I. Lauritzen Jr andE. Passaglia,J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stds 71A (1967) 261.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    A. Keller, E. Martuscelli, D. J. Priest andY. Udagawa,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 9 (1971) 1807.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    A. Keller, in “Macromolecular Science”, Vol.8, edited by C. E. H. Bawn (Butterworths, London, 1972) p. 105.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    M. Tasumi andS. Krimm,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 6 (1968) 995.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    M. I. Bank andS. Krimm,J. Polym. Sci. B 8 (1970) 143.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    S. Krimm andT. C. Cheam,Faraday Disc. 68 (1979) 244.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    X. Jing andS. Krimm,J. Polym. Sci. B 21 (1983) 123.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    P. J. Flory andD. Y. Yoon,Nature 272 (1978) 226.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    J. Klein andR. Ball,Faraday Disc. 68 (1979) 198.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    E. A. Dimarzio, C. M. Guttman andJ. D. Hoffman,ibid. 68 (1978) 210.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    P. G. Degennes,J. Chem. Phys. 55 (1971) 572.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    J. Schelten, D. G. H. Ballard, G. D. Wignall, G. Longman andW. Schmatz,Polymer 17 (1976) 751.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    J. S. Higgins andR. S. Stein,J. Appl. Crystallogr. 11 (1978) 346.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    R. Ullman,Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 10 (1980) 261.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    L. H. Sperling,Polym. Eng. Sci. 24 (1984) 1.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    D. M. Sadler andA. Keller,Polymer 17 (1976) 37.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Idem, Macromolecules 10 (1977) 1128.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Idem, Science 203 (1979) 263.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    D. Y. Yoon andP. J. Flory,Polymer 18 (1977) 509.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    D. Y. Yoon,J. Appl. Crystallogr. 11 (1978) 531.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    D. Y. Yoon andP. J. Flory,Faraday Disc. 68 (1979) 288.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    J. Schelten, G. D. Wignall andD. G. H. Ballard,Polymer 15 (1974) 682.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    C. M. Guttman, J. D. Hoffman andE. A. Dimarzio,Faraday Disc. 68 (1979) 297 and general discussion remarks of C. M. Guttman, p. 457.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    H. D. Keith, F. J. Padden Jr andR. G. Vadimsky,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 4 (1966) 267.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Idem, J. Appl. Phys. 42 (1971) 4585.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    H. A. Davis,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 4 (1966) 1009.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    E. S. Clark,Soc. Plast. Eng. J. 23(7) (1967) 46.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Y. Hase andP. H. Geil,Polym. J. 2 (1971) 560.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    F. Rybnikar andP. H. Geil,J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B7 (1973) 1.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    A. Mehta andB. Wunderlich,Makromol. Chem. 175 (1974) 977.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    G. Meinel, A. Peterlin andK. Sakaoku, in “Analytical Calorimetry”, edited by R. S. Porter and J. F. Johnson, (Plenum, New York, 1968) p. 15.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    A. Peterlin,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 7 (1969) 1151.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    C. P. Buckley, R. W. Gray andN. G. Mccrum,J. Polym. Sci. B 7 (1969) 835.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    E. W. Fischer, H. Godder andW. Piesczek,J. Polym. Sci. C 32 (1971) 149.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    E. W. Fischer, K. Hahn, J. Kufler, U. Struth andR. Born,J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 22 (1984) 1491.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    S. Nagou andK. Azuma,J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B16 (1979) 435.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    H. H. Kausch andK. L. Devries,Int. J. Fract. 11 (1975) 727.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    K. Itoyama,J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 19 (1981) 1873.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    R. Popli andD. Roylance,Polymer. Eng. Sci. 25 (1985) 828.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    R. Hosemann,J. Appl. Phys. 34 (1963) 25.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    B. Wunderlich,Polymer 5 (1964) 125.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    D. J. Bacon andN. A. Geary,J. Mater. Sci. 18 (1983) 853.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    N. A. Geary andD. J. Bacon,ibid. 18 (1983) 864.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    D. J. Bacon andK. Tharmalingam,ibid. 18 (1983) 884.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    A. W. Thornton andP. Predecki,J. Appl. Phys. 41 (1970) 4266.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    E. Piorkowska andA. Galeski,J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 23 (1985) 1723.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    A. Galeski,ibid. 19 (1981) 721.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    P. B. Bowden andR. J. Young,J. Mater. Sci. 9 (1974) 2034.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    J. M. Haudin, in “Plastic Deformation of Amorphous and Semi-crystalline Materials”, edited by B. Escaig and C. G'Sell (es éditions de Physique, Les Uas, France, 1982) p. 291.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    P. H. Geil,J. Polym. Sci. A 2 (1964) 3818.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    A. Peterlin,J. Mater. Sci. 6 (1971) 490.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    H. H. Kausch, in “Advances in Polymer Science and Engineering”, edited by K. A. Pae (Plenum, New York, 1972) p. 207.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    B. W. Cherry andP. L. Mcginley,Appl. Polym. Symp. 17 (1971) 59.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    A. W. Agar, F. C. Frank andA. Keller,Phil. Mag. 4 (1959) 32.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    V. F. Holland,J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1964) 3235.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    D. C. Bassett,Phil. Mag. 10 (1964) 595.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    M. L. Williams,Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 155 (1969) 539.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    J. Petermann andH. Gleiter,Phil. Mag. 25 (1972) 813.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    J. Petermann andR. M. Gohil,Polymer 20 (1979) 596.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    F. C. Frank, A. Keller andA. O'Connor,Phil. Mag. 3 (1958) 64.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    H. D. Keith andE. Passaglia,J. Res. Nat. Bur Stds 68A (1964) 513.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    P. Predecki andW. O. Statton,Appl. Polym. Symp. 6 (1967) 165.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    L. G. Shadrake andF. Guiu,Phil. Mag. 34 (1976) 565.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Idem, ibid. 39 (1979) 785.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    A. Keller andJ. G. Rider,J. Mater. Sci. 1 (1966) 389.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    T. Hinton andJ. G. Rider,J. Appl. Phys. 39 (1968) 4932.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    L. A. Simpson andT. Hinton,J. Mater. Sci. 6 (1971) 558.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    R. J. Young, P. B. Bowden, J. M. Ritchie andJ. G. Rider,ibid. 8 (1973) 23.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    C. A. Coulomb,Mem. Math. Phys. 7 (1773) 343.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    A. S. Argon, R. D. Andrew, J. A. Godrick andW. J. Whilney,J. Appl. Phys. 39 (1968) 1899.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    R. A. Duckett, S. Rabinowitz andI. M. Ward,J. Mater. Sci. 5 (1970) 909.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    P. B. Bowden andJ. A. Jukes,ibid. 7 (1972) 52.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    L. Lin, PhD thesis, MIT (1991).Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    U. F. Kocks, A. S. Argon andM. F. Ashby, “Progress in Materials Science” Vol. 19, edited by B. Chalmers, J. W. Christian and T. B. Massaloki (Pergamon, Oxford, 1975) 110.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    H. Kiho, A. Peterlin andP. H. Geil,J. Polym. Sci. B3 (1965) 257.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    I. L. Hay andA. Keller,Kolloid-Z. Z. Polym. 204 (1965) 43.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    D. P. Pope andA. Keller,J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 13 (1975) 533.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    A. Keller andD. P. Pope,J. Mater. Sci. 6 (1971) 453.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    I. L. Hay andA. Keller,ibid. 2 (1967) 538.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Idem, ibid. 1 (1966) 41.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    J. J. Point, G. A. Homes, D. Gezovich andA. Keller,ibid. 4 (1969) 908.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    D. P. Pope andA. Keller,ibid. 9 (1974) 920.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Idem, J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 14 (1976) 821.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Idem, J. Mater. Sci. 12 (1977) 1105.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Z. H. Stachurski andI. M. Ward,J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B3 (1969) 445.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    H. Gleiter andA. S. Argon,Phil. Mag. 24 (1971) 71.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    A. Cowking andJ. G. Rider,J. Mater. Sci. 4 (1969) 1051.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    F. C. Frank, A. Keller andA. O'Connor,Phil. Mag. 4 (1959) 200.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    D. Shinozabi andG. W. Groves,J. Mater. Sci. 8 (1973) 1012.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    J. J. Point, M. Dosiere, M. Gilliot andA. Goffin-Gerin,ibid. 6 (1971) 479.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    S. G. Burnay, M. D. D. Aere andG. W. Groves,ibid. 13 (1978) 639.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    T. Hinton, J. G. Riger andL. A. Simpson,ibid. 9 (1974) 1331.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    D. A. Zaukelies,J. Appl. Phys. 33 (1962) 2797.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Y. Tajima,J. Appl. Phys. Jpn. 12 (1973) 40.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    K. Shigematsu, K. Imada andM. Takayanagi,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 13 (1975) 73.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    G. E. Attenburrow andD. C. Bassett,J. Mater. Sci. 14 (1979) 2679.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    W. L. Wu, V. F. Holland andW. B. Black,ibid. 14 (1979) 250.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    R. E. Robertson,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 7 (1969) 1315.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    W. Rose andCh. Meurer,J. Mater. Sci. 16 (1981) 883.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    N. A. Pertsev andV. I. Vladimirov,J. Mater. Sci. Lett. 1 (1982) 135.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    S. J. Deteresa, R. S. Porter andR. J. Farris,J. Mater. Sci. 20 (1985) 1645.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    F. C. Frank andA. N. Stroh,Proc. Phys. Soc. B 65 (1952) 811.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    A. S. Argon, in “Treatise of Material Science and Technology”, edited by H. Herman (Academic, New York, 1972) p. 79.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    T. Oda, S. Nomura andH. Kawai,J. Polym. Sci. A 3 (1965) 1993.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    D. Lewis, E. J. Wheeler, W. F. Maddams andJ. E. Preedy,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 10 (1972) 369.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    P. Predecki andW. O. Statton,J. Appl. Phys. 37 (1966) 4053.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Idem, ibid. 38 (1967) 4140.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    J. M. Peterson,ibid. 37 (1966) 4047.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    R. J. Young,Phil. Mag. 30 (1974) 85.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    J. G. Rider andK. M. Watkinson,Polymer 19 (1978) 645.Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    W. P. Leung, F. C. Chen, C. L. Choy, A. Richardson andI. M. Ward,ibid. 25 (1984) 447.Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    C. L. Choy andW. P. Leung,J. Polym. Sci. Polym. Phys. Ed. 23 (1985) 1759.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    H. Conrad,Mater. Sci. Eng. 6 (1970) 265.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    W. Wu, A. S. Argon andA. P. L. Turner,J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 10 (1972) 2379.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    M. Bevis andE. B. Crellin,Polymer 12 (1971) 666.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    B. A. Bilby andA. G. Crocker,Proc. Roy. Soc. A288 (1965) 240.Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    M. Bevis andA. G. Crocker,ibid. A313 (1969) 509.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    A. F. Acton, M. Bevis, A. G. Crocker andN. D. H. Ross,ibid. A320 (1970) 101.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    P. Allan, E. B. Crellin andM. Bevis,Phil. Mag. 27 (1973) 127.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    R. J. Young andP. B. Bowden,ibid. 29 (1974) 1061.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    H. Kiho, A. Peterlin andP. H. Geil,J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1964) 1599.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    I. L. Hay andA. Keller,J. Polym. Sci. C 30 (1970) 289.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    T. Seto, T. Hara andK. Tanaka,J. Appl. Phys. Jpn 7 (1968) 31.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    F. C. Frank, V. B. Gupta andI. M. Ward,Phil. Mag. 21 (1970) 1127.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    D. Lewis, E. J. Wheeler, W. F. Maddams andJ. E. Preedy,J. Appl. Crystallogr 4 (1971) 55.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    J. R. White,J. Mater. Sci. 9 (1974) 1860.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    J. E. Preedy andE. J. Wheeler,ibid. 12 (1977) 810.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    P. Allan andM. Bevis,Phil. Mag. 35 (1977) 405.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    K. Tanaka, T. Seto andT. Hara,J. Phys. Soc. Jpn 17 (1962) 873.Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    R. H. Pierce Jr,J. P. Tordella andW. M. D. Bryant,J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 74 (1952) 282.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    G. Natta,Makromol. Chem. 16 (1955) 213.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    E. R. Walter andF. P. Reding,J. Polym. Sci. 21 (1956) 557.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    W. R. Slichter,ibid. 21 (1956) 141.Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    P. W. Teare andD. R. Holmes,ibid. 24 (1957) 496.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    A. Turner-Jones,ibid. 62 (1962) S53.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Y. Kikuchi andS. Krimm,J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B4 (1970) 461.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    J. Steidl andZ. Pelzbauer,J. Polym. Sci. C 38 (1972) 345.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    H. Kiho, A. Peterlin andP. H. Geil,J. Polym. Sci. B3 (1965) 157.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Idem, ibid. 3 (1965) 263.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    A. Cowking, J. G. Rider, I. L. Hay andA. Keller,J. Mater. Sci. 3 (1968) 646.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    K. Kobayashi andT. Nagasawa,J. Polym. Sci. C 15 (1966) 163.Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    P. Predecki andA. W. Thornton,J. Appl. Phys. 41 (1970) 4342.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    R. G. C. Arridge,J. Mater. Sci. 9 (1974) 155.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    M. Yamada, K. Miyasaka andK. Ishikawa,J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 9 (1976) 1083.Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    R. G. Quynn andH. Brody,J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B5 (1971) 721.Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    V. S. Kuksenko andA. I. Slutsker,Sov. Phys.-Solid State 10 (1968) 657.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    W. E. Kaufman andJ. M. Schultz,J. Mater. Sci. 8 (1973) 41.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    J. Patermann andJ. M. Schultz,ibid. 13 (1978) 50.Google Scholar
  250. 250.
    A. J. Owen andI. M. Ward,ibid. 6 (1971) 485.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    E. S. Clark,J. Macromol. Sci. B4 (1970) 499.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    R. G. Quynn andH. Brody,J. Macromol. Sci.-Phys. B5 (1971) 721.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    B. Cayrol andJ. Petermann,J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 12 (1974) 2169.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    E. S. Clark, in “Structure and Properties of Polymer Films”, edited by R. W. Leuz and R. S. Stein (Plenum, New York, 1973) p. 267.Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    G. W. Groves andP. B. Hirsch,J. Mater. Sci. 4 (1969) 929.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    T. Tagawa,J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 18 (1980) 971.Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    J. M. Peterson andP. H. Lindenmeyer,J. Appl. Phys. 37 (1966) 4051.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    R. S. Stein, S. Onogi, K. Sasaguri andD. A. Keedy ibid. 34 (1963) 80.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    K. Sasaguri, S. Hoshino andR. S. Stein,ibid. 35 (1964) 47.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    A. Peterlin andG. Meinel,Makromol. Chem. y142 (1971) 227.Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    E. Weynant, J. M. Haudin andC. G. Śell,J. Mater. Sci. 15 (1980) 2677.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    T. T. Wang,J. Polym. Sci., Polym. Phys. Ed. 12 (1974) 145.Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    J. R. Dryden, A. S. Deakin andD. M. Shinozaki,J. Mech. Phys. Solids. 34 (1986) 81.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    A. Galeski, A. S. Argon andR. E. Cohen,Macromolecules 21 (1988) 2761.Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    T. Oda, N. Sakaguchi andH. Kawai,J. Polym. Sci. C 15 (1966) 223.Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    B. H. McConkey, M. W. Darlington, D. W. Saunders andC. G. Cannon,J. Mater. Sci. 6 (1971) 572.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Z. W. Wilchinsky,Polymer 5 (1964) 271.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    R. Yang andR. S. Stein,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 5 (1967) 939.Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    K. Sasaguri, R. Yamada andR. S. Stein,J. Appl. Phys. 35 (1964) 3188.Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    T. Oda, N. Sakaguchi andH. Kawai,J. Polym. Sci. C 15 (1966) 223.Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    R. S. Moore,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 5 (1967) 711.Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    S. Nomura, A. Asanuma, S. Suehiro andH. Kawai,ibid. 9 (1971) 1991.Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    S. Nomura, M. Matsuo andH. Kawai,ibid. 10 (1972) 2489.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    D. Y. Yoon, C. Chang andR. S. Stein,ibid. 12 (1974) 2091.Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    M. Matsuo, K. Hirota, K. Fujita andH. Kawai,Macromolecules 11 (1978) 1000.Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    M. Matsuo, T. Ogita, S. Suehiro, T. Yamada andH. Kawai,ibid. 11 (1978) 521.Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    M. Matsuo,J. Chem. Phys. 72 (1980) 899.Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    R. J. Asaro,Acta Metall. 23 (1975) 1255.Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    G. Meinel andA. Peterlin,J. Polym. Sci. A-2 9 (1971) 67.Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    C. G'Sell andJ. J. Jonas,J. Mater. Sci. 14 (1979) 583.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Idem, ibid. 16 (1981) 1956.Google Scholar
  282. 282.
    I. M. Ward, “Mechanical Properties of Solid Polymers”, (Wiley-Interscience, London 1975) p. 275.Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    C. M. Sargent andD. M. Shinozaki,Scripta Metall 11 (1977) 401.Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    N. Ibrahim, D. M. Shinozaki andC. M. Sargent,Mater. Sci. Eng. 30 (1979) 175.Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    D. M. Shinozaki andC. M. Sargent,ibid. 35 (1978) 213.Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    C. M. Sargent andD. M. Shinozaki,ibid. 43 (1980) 125.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    J. Dryden, C. M. Sargent andD. M. Shinozaki,ibid. 68 (1984) 73.Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    D. M. Shinozaki andC. M. Sargent,J. Mater. Sci. 15 (1980) 1054.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    D. M. Shinozaki, C. M. Sargent andS. Fehr,Mater. Sci. Eng. 51 (1981) 93.Google Scholar
  290. 290.
    D. M. Shinozaki andC. M. Sargent,ibid. 73 (1985) 77.Google Scholar
  291. 291.
    J. C. M. Li,Canad. J. Phys. 45 (1967) 493.Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    D. J. Lloyd andJ. D. Embury,Met. Sci. J. 4 (1970) 6.Google Scholar
  293. 293.
    A. A. Solomon, C. N. Ahquist andW. D. Nix,Scripta Metall. 4 (1970) 231.Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    A. S. Argon,Phil. Mag. 28 (1973) 839.Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    R. N. Haward andG. Thackray,Proc. Roy. Soc. A302 (1968) 453.Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    M. E. Boyce, D. M. Parks andA. S. Argon,Mech. Mater. 7 (1988) 15.Google Scholar
  297. 297.
    J. M. Peterson,Polym. Sci. B 7 (1969) 231.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    T. K. Chaki andJ. C. M. Li,J. Appl. Phys. 56 (1984) 2392.Google Scholar
  299. 299.
    E. M. Arruda andM. Boyce,J. Mech. Phys. Solids 41 (1993) 389.Google Scholar
  300. 300.
    L. A. Davis andC. A. Pampillo,J. Appl. Phys. 42 (1971) 4659.Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    C. A. Pampillo andL. A. Davis,ibid. 43 (1972) 4277.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman & Hall 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Lin
    • 1
  • A. S. Argon
    • 1
  1. 1.Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Marshall LaboratoriesE. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.PhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations