, Volume 83, Issue 4, pp 186–188 | Cite as

Manufacture and use of tools in wild Sumatran orangutans

Implications for human evolution
  • C. P. van Schaik
  • E. A. Fox
  • A. F. Sitompul
Short Communications


Sumatran Orangutan Wild Sumatran Orangutan 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Parker, S. T., Gibson, K. R.: J. Hum. Evol.6, 623 (1977)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    McGrew, W. C.: Chimpanzee Material Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press 1992Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    McGrew, W. C., in: Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution, p.151 (K. R. Gibson, T. Ingold, eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press 1993Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Diamond, J.: The Third Chimpanzee; the Evolution and Future of the Human Animal. New York: Harper Collins 1992Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rijksen, H. D.: A field study on Sumatran Orang Utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii Lesson 1827). Wageningen: Veenman & Zonen 1978Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Russon, A. E., Galdikas, B. M. F.: J. Comp. Psychol.107, 147 (1993)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lethmate, J.: J. Hum. Evol.11, 49 (1982)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Galdikas, B. M. E.: ibid.10, 19 (1982)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chevalier-Skolnikoff, S., Galdikas, B. M. F., Skolnikoff, A. Z.: ibid.11, 639 (1982)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Susman, R. L.: Science265, 1570 (1994)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gibson, K. R., in: Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution, p.131 (K. R. Gibson, T. Ingold, eds.). Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press 1993Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    van Schaik, C. P., Fox, E. A.: unpublished observationsGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pilbeam, D. R.: Sci. Am.250, 84 (1984)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wright, R. V. S.: Mankind8, 296 (1972)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Toth, N., Schick, K. D., Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., Sevcik, R. A., Rumbaugh, D. M.: J. Archaeol. Sci.20, 81 (1993)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wynn, T., McGrew, W. C.: Man (N. S.)24, 383 (1989)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Byrne, R. W.: The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press 1995Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Visalberghi, E., Fragaszy, D. M., Savage-Rumbaugh, S.: J. Comp. Physiol.109, 52 (1995); Povinelli, D. J., in: Chimpanzee Cultures, p.285 (R. W. Wrangham, W. C. McGrew, F. B. M. de Waal, P. G. Heltne, eds.). Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press 1994; Russon, A. E., Bard, K., Parker, S. T. (eds.): Reaching into Thought: the Minds of the Great Apes. Cambridge: Cambridge Umv. Press (in press); Savage-Rumbaugh, S., Lewin, R.: Kanzi: the Ape at the Brink of the Human Mind. New York: Wiley 1994Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Povinelli, D. J., Cant, J. G. H.: Q. Rev. Biol. (in press)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. P. van Schaik
    • 1
  • E. A. Fox
    • 1
  • A. F. Sitompul
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Biological Anthropology and AnatomyDuke UniversityDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of IndonesiaDepokIndonesia

Personalised recommendations