African Archaeological Review

, Volume 3, Issue 1, pp 117–150

Reinvestigation of Kintampo 6 rock shelter, Ghana: implications for the nature of culture change

  • Ann Brower Stahl
Article

Abstract

The excavations of 1982 at Kintampo rock shelter no. 6 are described and the results correlated with those of Flight (1976). The sequence demonstrates an overlap between the Punpun and Kintampo culture ceramic traditions and a progressive introduction of diagnostically Kintampo traits. Decreasing residential mobility is also indicated. Analysis of the organic remains, while casting doubt on earlier identifications of domesticBos and cultivated cowpea, suggests progressive clearing of the forest such as would have occurred with horticulture and the confirmed herding of an ovicaprid.

Earlier interpretations of Kintampo culture origins are reviewed in the light of the new evidence and all available radiocarbon dates, and it is tentatively concluded that the culture emerged in central Ghana through coalescence of autochthonous and northern elements.

Résumé

Les fouilles de 1982 à l'abri-sous-roche Kintampo-6 sont décrites et les résultats comparés à ceux de Flight (1976). La séquence met en évidence un chevauchement des traditions céramiques Punpun et Kintampo et l'introduction progressive des traits diagnostiques de la civilisation Kintampo. Une réduction de la mobilité résidentielle est aussi indiquée. L'analyse des restes organiques, quoique mettant en doute l'identification jadis proposée deBos domestique et deVigna unguiculata, donne lieu à croire à une déforestation en relation avec l'horticulture et l'élevage confirmé d'ovicapridés.

Les interprétations antérieures des origines de la civilisation Kintampo sont ré-évaluées d'après ces nouvelles données et toutes les datations14C disponibles pour cette période. La thèse soutenue est que cette civilisation a été constituée au Ghana central à partir d'une fusion d'éléments culturels autochthones et septentrionaux.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Agorsah, E. K. 1976. Some considerations on the archaeology and traditional history of the Begho area. M.A. thesis, Department of Archaeology, University of Ghana.Google Scholar
  2. Anquandah, J. 1976. Boyasi Hill—a Kintampo culture site.Sankofa 2:92.Google Scholar
  3. Asibey, E. O. A. 1971. The present status of wildlife conservation in Ghana. InWildlife conservation in West Africa (ed. D. C. D. Happold): pp. 15–21. IUCN Publications, new series no. 22.Google Scholar
  4. Bequaert, J. C. 1950. Studies in the Achatininae, a group of African land snails.Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology 105(1). Cambridge: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  5. Booth, A. H. 1960.Small mammals of West Africa. London: Longmans.Google Scholar
  6. Brooks, A. S., Gelburd, D. E., and Yellen, J. F. 1984. Food production and culture change among the !Kung San: implications for prehistoric research. InFrom hunters to farmers: the causes and consequences of food production in Africa (eds J. D. Clark and S. Brandt): pp. 293–310. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. Carter, P. L. and Flight, C. 1972. A report on the fauna from the sites of Ntereso and Kintampo rock shelter six in Ghana, with evidence for the practice of animal husbandry in the second millenium BC.Man n.s. 7:277–82.Google Scholar
  8. Clark, J. D. 1976. Prehistoric populations and pressures favoring plant domestication in Africa. InOrigins of African plant domestication (eds J. R. Harlan, J. M. J. DeWet and A. B. L. Stemler): pp. 67–105. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  9. Clark, J. D. 1980. Human populations and cultural adaptations in the Sahara and Nile during prehistoric times. InThe Sahara and the Nile (eds M. A. J. Williams and H. Faure): pp. 527–82. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema.Google Scholar
  10. Davies, O. 1962. Neolithic cultures of Ghana. InActes, IVe Congrès Panafricain de Préhistoire et de l'Etude du Quaternaire (eds G. Mortelmans and J. Nenquin): pp. 291–302. Tervuren: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.Google Scholar
  11. Davies, O. 1967.West Africa before the Europeans. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  12. Davies, O. 1973. Excavations at Ntereso, Gonja, Northern Ghana. Final report. Duplicated manuscript. Pietermaritzburg: Natal Museum.Google Scholar
  13. Davies, O. 1980. The Ntereso culture in Ghana. InWest African culture dynamics (eds B. K. Swartz and R. A. Dumett): pp. 205–25. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  14. Delany, M. J. 1972. The ecology of small rodents in tropical Africa.Mammal Review 2(1):1–42.Google Scholar
  15. Delany, M. J. and Kansiimeruhanga, W. D. K. 1970. Observations on the ecology of rodents from a small arable plot near Kampala, Uganda.Revue de Zoologie et de Botanique Africaines 81:417–25.Google Scholar
  16. Dombrowski, J. C. 1976. Mumute and Bonoase—two sites of the Kintampo industry.Sankofa 2:64–71.Google Scholar
  17. Dombrowski, J. C. 1980. Earliest settlements in Ghana: the Kintampo industry. InProceedings, VIIIth Panafrican Congress of Prehistory and Quaternary Studies (eds R. E. Leakey and B. A. Ogot): pp. 261–62. Nairobi: International Louis Leakey Memorial Institute for African Prehistory.Google Scholar
  18. Dombrowski, J. and Priddy, B. 1978. Pottery decorating tools of the Kintampo industry.West African Journal of Archaeology 8:165–67.Google Scholar
  19. Dorst, J. and Dandelot, P. 1969.A field guide to the larger mammals of Africa. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  20. Flight, C. 1967. Prehistoric sequence in the Kintampo area of Ghana. InActes, VIe, Congrès Panafricain de Préhistoire (ed. H. J. Hugot): pp. 68–9. Chambery: Les Imprimeries Réunies de Chambery.Google Scholar
  21. Flight, C. 1968. Kintampo 1967.West African Archaeological Newsletter 8:15–20.Google Scholar
  22. Flight, C. 1970. Excavations at Kintampo.West African Archaeological Newsletter 12:71–72. L. Stemler): pp. 211–21. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  23. Flight, C. 1976. The Kintampo culture and its place in the economic prehistory of West Africa. InOrigins of African plant domestication (eds J. R. Harlan, J. M. J. DeWet and A. B. L. Stemler: pp. 211–21. The Hague: MoutonGoogle Scholar
  24. Gay, L. O. 1956. The geology of the Bui hydro-electric project.Gold Coast Geological Survey Bulletin No. 22.Google Scholar
  25. Hall, J. B. and Swaine, M. D. 1976. Classification and ecology of closed-canopy forest in Ghana.Journal of Ecology 64:913–51.Google Scholar
  26. Hitchcock, R. K. and Ebert, J. I. 1984. Foraging and food production among Kalahari hunter/gatherers. InFrom hunters to farmers: the causes and consequences of food production in Africa (eds J. D. Clark and S. Brandt): pp. 328–48. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  27. Irvine, F. R. 1961.Woody plants of Ghana, with special reference to their uses. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kense, F. J. 1983a. Daboya project update: more dates and evidence for a ‘Kintampoid’ culture.Nyama Akuma 22:10–11.Google Scholar
  29. Kense, F. J. 1983b. 1983 field report on Daboya, Ghana.Nyame Akuma 23:8–10.Google Scholar
  30. Klein, R. G. 1984. The prehistory of Stone Age herders in South Africa. InFrom hunters to farmers: the causes and consequences of food production in Africa (eds J. D. Clark and S. Brandt): pp. 281–89. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  31. Linares, O. F. 1976. ‘Garden hunting’ in the American tropics.Human Ecology 4:331–49.Google Scholar
  32. McIntosh, S. K. and McIntosh, R. J. 1981. West African prehistory.American Scientist 69:602–13.Google Scholar
  33. McIntosh, S. K. and McIntosh, R. J. 1983. Current directions in West African prehistory.Annual Review of Anthropology 12:215–58.Google Scholar
  34. Malaisse, F. and Parent, G. 1982. Rodents of the miombo woodland area. A nutritional and ecological approach.Ecology of Food and Nutrition 11:211–16.Google Scholar
  35. Mathewson, R. D. 1967. Chukoto. InArchaeology in the Volta basin 1963–1966 pp. 26–7. Volta Basin Research Project. Legon: University of Ghana.Google Scholar
  36. Mead, A. R. 1961.The giant African snail: a problem in economic malacology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  37. Morris, P. A. 1951. A field guide to the shells of our Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  38. Munsell Color Co., Inc. 1942.Munsell book of color. Baltimore: Munsell Co.Google Scholar
  39. Newton, L. E. 1980. More Kintampo culture finds in the forest zone of Ghana.Nyame Akuma 16:7–8.Google Scholar
  40. Newton, L. E. and Woodell, S. R. J. 1976. A newly discovered site for the Kintampo culture.Sankofa 2:19–22.Google Scholar
  41. Nunoo, R. B. 1969. Buruboro factory excavations. InActes du ler Colloque International d'Archéologie Africaine pp. 321–33. Fort Lamy: Institut National Tchadien pour les Sciences Humaines.Google Scholar
  42. Phillipson, D. W. 1976.The prehistory of eastern Zambia. Memoir 6. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa.Google Scholar
  43. Phillipson, D. W. 1982. Early food production in sub-Saharan Africa. InThe Cambridge history of Africa, Vol. 1 (ed. J. D. Clark): pp. 770–829. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Pilsbry, H. A. 1919. A review of the land mollusks of the Belgian Congo chiefly based on the collections of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909–1915.Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 40:1–370.Google Scholar
  45. Posnansky, M. 1984. Early agricultural societies in Ghana. InFrom hunters to farmers: the causes and consequences of food production in Africa (eds J. D. Clark and S. Brandt): pp. 147–51. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  46. Posnansky, M. and McIntosh, R. 1976. New radiocarbon dates for northern and western Africa.Journal of African History 17:161–95.Google Scholar
  47. Rahtz, P. A. and Flight, C. 1974. A quern factory near Kintampo, Ghana.West African Journal of Archaeology 4:1–31.Google Scholar
  48. Rosevear, D. R. 1969.The rodents of West Africa. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History).Google Scholar
  49. Shaw, T. 1977. Hunters, gatherers and first farmers in West Africa. InHunters, gatherers and first farmers beyond Europe (ed. J. V. S. Megaw): pp. 69–125. Leicester: Leicester University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Shepard, A. O. 1956.Ceramics for the archaeologist. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication 609. Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  51. Smith, A. B. 1980. The Neolithic tradition in the Sahara. InThe Sahara and the Nile (eds M. A. J. Williams and H. Faure): pp. 451–65. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema.Google Scholar
  52. Smith, A. B. 1984. Origins of the Neolithic in the Sahara. InFrom hunters to farmers: the causes and consequences of food production in Africa (eds J. D. Clark and S. Brandt): pp. 84–92. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  53. Stahl, A. B. 1985.The Kintampo culture: subsistence and settlement in Ghana during the mid-second millennium BC. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  54. Stemler, A. B. L. 1980. Origins of plant domestification in the Sahara and the Nile Valley. InThe Sahara and the Nile (eds M. A. J. Williams and H. Faure): pp. 503–26. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema.Google Scholar
  55. Struever, S. 1968. Flotation techniques for the recovery of small-scale archaeological remains.American Antiquity 33: 353–62.Google Scholar
  56. Talbot, M. R. 1983. Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana.Nyame Akuma 23:11–12.Google Scholar
  57. Talbot, M. R. and Delibrias, G. 1980. A new late Pleistocene-Holocene water-level curve for Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana.Earth and Planetary Science Letters 47:336–44.Google Scholar
  58. Taylor, C. J. 1960.Synecology and silviculture in Ghana. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons.Google Scholar
  59. Tringham, R. in press. Domesticating the humans: the role of sedentism in the ‘neolithisation’ of South-East Europe.Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology and Anthropology 3.Google Scholar
  60. Walker, H. O. 1962. Weather and climate. InAgriculture and land use in Ghana (ed. J. B. Wills): pp. 7–50. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Willett, F. 1971. A survey of recent results in the radiocarbon chronology of western and northern Africa.Journal of African History 12:339–70.Google Scholar
  62. Wood, W. R. and Johnson, D. L. 1978. A survey of disturbance processes in archaeological site formation.Advances in archaeological method and theory 1:315–81.Google Scholar
  63. York, R. N. 1978. Excavations at Dutsen Kongba, Plateau State, Nigeria.West African Journal of Archaeology 8:139–63.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Cambridge University Press 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann Brower Stahl

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations