Advertisement

African Archaeological Review

, Volume 5, Issue 1, pp 159–170 | Cite as

Iron Age farmers in southwestern Zambia: some aspects of spatial organization

  • Joseph O. Vogel
Article

Abstract

Examination of the spatial organization of prehistoric farming hamlets in southwestern Zambia permits certain suggestions about the structure of prehistoric economic and social practice. Slash-and-burn agriculture facilitated the movement of farmers into favoured microenvironments. Its extensive land requirements regulated population growth and encouraged territorial expansion. After the ninth century AD, a cyclical use of agricultural opportunities was instituted. Through this time, social constraints concentrated the dispersed population within single microenvironments. Subsequent adaptation to the simultaneous use of diverse microenvironments was supported by the expansion of herding activities and the role of cattle in maintaining socio-political prestige.

Keywords

Social Practice Spatial Organization Social Constraint Ninth Century Subsequent Adaptation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Résumé

L'étude de l'organisation spatiale des hameaux agricoles préhistoriques du Sud-Ouest de la Zambie nous permet d'avancer certaines suggestions au sujet de la structure des pratiques économiques et sociales pendant la préhistoire. La culture sur brûlis de forêt a facilité la déplacement des agriculteurs vers des microenvironnements Préférés—et comme ces défrichements utilisaient beaucoup de terrain, ils ont réglé la croissance démographique, et ont encouragé l'expansion territoriale. Après le neuvième siècle après J.C., une utilisation cyclique des possibilités agricoles s'est établie. Pendant cette période des contraintes sociales ont concentré la population dispersée dans des microenvironnements particuliers. L'adaptation plus tard à l'utilisation simultanée de microenvironnements divers était soutenue par l'expansion de l'élevage et par le rôle du bétail dans le maintien du prestige socio-politique.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, J. 1984. Early frontiers in southern Africa. InFrontiers: southern African archaeology today (eds. M. Hallet al.): pp. 12–23. Oxford: B.A.R. International Series 207.Google Scholar
  2. Allan, W. 1967.The African Husbandman. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd.Google Scholar
  3. Clark, J. D. 1950.The Stone Age Cultures of Northern Rhodesia. Cape Town: S. African Archaeological Society.Google Scholar
  4. Clark, J. D. 1971.The Prehistory of Africa. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  5. Clark, J. D. 1972. Mobility and settlement patterns in sub-Saharan Africa. InMan, Settlement and Urbanism (eds. P. J. Uckoet al.): pp. 127–48. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  6. Collet, D. P. 1982. Models of the spread of the Early Iron Age. InThe Archaeological and Linguistic Reconstruction of African History (eds. C. Ehret and M. Posnansky): pp. 182–98. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  7. Colson, E. 1951. The role of cattle among the plateau Tonga.Rhodes-Livingstone Journal 11:10–46.Google Scholar
  8. Daniels, S. G. H. and Phillipson, D. W. 1969. The Early Iron Age site at Dambwa near Livingstone. InIron Age Cultures in Zambia, (B. M. Faganet al.): pp. 1–54. London: Chatto & Windus.Google Scholar
  9. Denbow, J. R. 1984. Cows and kings: a spatial and economic analysis of a hierarchical Early Iron Age settlement system in eastern Botswana. InFrontiers: southern African archaeology today (eds. M. Hallet al.): pp. 24–39. Oxford: B.A.R. International Series 207.Google Scholar
  10. Ehret, C. 1982. The first spread of food production to southern Africa. InThe Archaeological and Linguistic Reconstruction of African History (eds. C. Ehret and M. Posnansky): pp. 158–81. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  11. Fagan, B. M. 1963. The Iron Age sequence in the Southern Province of Northern Rhodesia.Journal of African History 4:157–77.Google Scholar
  12. Fagan, B. M. 1965.Southern Africa in the Iron Age. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  13. Fagan, B. M. 1967.Iron Age Cultures in Zambia, 1. London: Chatto & Windus.Google Scholar
  14. Fagan, B. M. 1969. Early Tonga settlements in the Kalomo District. InIron Age Cultures in Zambia, 2 (B. M. Faganet al.): pp. 185–234. London: Chatto & Windus.Google Scholar
  15. Fagan, B. M. and Phillipson, D. W. 1965. Sebanzi: the Iron Age sequence at Lochinvar, and the Tonga.Journal Royal Anthropological Institute 95:253–94.Google Scholar
  16. Harris, D. R. 1972. Swidden systems and settlement. InMan, Settlement and Urbanism (eds. P. J. Uekoet al.): pp. 245–62. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  17. Huffman, T. N. 1970. The Early Iron Age and the spread of the Bantu.S. African Archaeological Bulletin 25:3–21.Google Scholar
  18. Huffman, T. N. 1972. The rise and fall of Zimbabwe.Journal of African History 13:353–66.Google Scholar
  19. Inskeep, R. R. 1962. Some Iron Age sites in Northern Rhodesia.S. African Archaeological Bulletin 17:136–80.Google Scholar
  20. Katanekwa, N. M. 1978. Some Early Iron Age sites from the Machili Valley of southwestern Zambia.Azania 13:135–66.Google Scholar
  21. Musonda, F. B. 1987. The significance of pottery in Zambian Later Stone Age contexts.African Archaeological Review 5:147–58.Google Scholar
  22. Oliver, R. 1966. The problem of the Bantu expansion.Journal of African History 7:361–76.Google Scholar
  23. Phillipson, D. W. 1977.The Later Prehistory of Eastern and Southern Africa. New York: Africana.Google Scholar
  24. Phillipson, D. W. 1984. Early food production in central and southern Africa. InFrom Hunters to Farmers (eds. J. D. Clark and S. A. Brandt): pp. 272–80. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  25. Phillipson, D. W. 1985.African Archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge Unviersity Press.Google Scholar
  26. Sinclair, P. and Lundmark, H. 1984. A spatial analysis of archaeological sites from Zimbabwe. InFrontiers: southern African archaeology today. (eds. M. Hallet al.): pp. 277–88. Oxford: B.A.R. International Series 207.Google Scholar
  27. Soper, R. 1971. A general review of the Early Iron Age in the southern half of Africa.Azania 6:5–37.Google Scholar
  28. Sutton, J. E. G. 1981. Estimating population size from selected African Iron-Age sites. InAfrican Historical Demography, 2 (ed. C. Fyfe): pp. 607–53. Edinburgh: Centre of African Studies.Google Scholar
  29. Sutton, J. E. G. 1985. Irrigation and terracing in Africa: intensification, specialization or overspecialization. InPrehistoric Intensive Agriculture in the Tropics (ed. I. S. Farrington): pp. 757–64. Oxford: B.A.R. International Series 232.Google Scholar
  30. Vogel, J. O. 1970. The Kalomo Culture of southern Zambia.Zambia Museums Journal 1:77–88.Google Scholar
  31. Vogel, J. O. 1971a.Kumadzulo (Zambia Museum Papers 3). Lusaka: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Vogel, J. O. 1971b.Kamangoza (Zambia Museum Papers 2). Nairobi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Vogel, J. O. 1972. On Early Iron Age funerary practice in southern Zambia.Current Anthropology 17: 153–4.Google Scholar
  34. Vogel, J. O. 1973. The Mosioatunya sequence.Zambia Museums Journal 4:105–52.Google Scholar
  35. Vogel, J. O. 1975a. Kabondo Kumbo and the Early Iron Age in the Victoria Falls region.Azania 10:49–75.Google Scholar
  36. Vogel, J. O. 1975b.Simbusenga (Zambia Museum Papers 4). Lusaka: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Vogel, J. O. 1978. The Gokomere tradition.S. African Archaeological Bulletin 33:12–17.Google Scholar
  38. Vogel, J. O. 1980. The Iron Age pottery of the Victoria Falls region.Zambia Museums Journal 5:41–77.Google Scholar
  39. Vogel, J. O. 1984. An Early Iron Age settlement system in southern Zambia.Azania 19:61–78.Google Scholar
  40. Vogel, J. O. 1986. Microenvironments, swidden and the Early Iron Age settlement of southwestern Zambia.Azania 21: in press.Google Scholar
  41. Vogel, J. O. and Katanekwa, N. M. 1976. Early Iron Age pottery from western Zambia.Azania 11:160–7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Cambridge University Press 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph O. Vogel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations