The Urban Review

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 239–251 | Cite as

A study of race and gender bias in the punishment of handicapped school children

  • Anna C. McFadden
  • George E. MarshII
  • Barrie Jo Price
  • Yunhan Hwang


There is scant research concerned about punishment of handicapped, minority students in public schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate race and gender, types of rules violations, types of punishments, referral rates, referral frequencies, and follow-up activities to determine differences in treatment by race, sex, and handicapping condition. The sample consisted of 4,391 discipline files representing records from 9 schools in a district (K-12). All data were analyzed using the Chi Square statistic. It was demonstrated that racial bias existed in the administration of punishment, and that Black, male handicapped students were punished more severely than others for commission of the same offenses.


Public School School Child Education Research Minority Student Gender Bias 
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Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press, Inc 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna C. McFadden
    • 1
  • George E. MarshII
    • 1
  • Barrie Jo Price
    • 1
  • Yunhan Hwang
    • 1
  1. 1.College of EducationThe University of AlabamaTuscaloosa

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