Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 34, Issue 1, pp 41–51 | Cite as

Composition and nutritional quality of pea (Pisum sativum L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L. spp. minor) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) meals, protein concentrates and isolates

  • R. S. Bhatty
  • G. I. Christison


Pea (Pisum sativum L.), faba bean (Vicia faba L. spp. minor), and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) meals, protein concentrates and isolates were analyzed for proximate composition, oligosaccharides, and amino acid composition. Protein quality was evaluated using a mouse bio-assay. The concentrates contained 59.2 to 70.6% and the isolates 86.7 to 90.8% protein (N × 6.25) on moisture-free basis. Glucose, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose were present in the highest concentrations in the protein concentrates (7.1 to 11.1%), the pea protein concentrate contained 8.7% sugars and faba bean and lentil protein concentrates 7.1% and 6.6% respectively. The protein isolates were almost free (containing less than 0.79%) of the sugars. Amino acid composition of the meals, concentrates and isolates showed, as expected, sulfur-amino acid deficiency (about two thirds of the rat requirement), which was probably largely responsible for the low protein efficiency ratios (0.75 to 1.18), and net protein ratios (0.25 to 0.73) of the three products, compared to values of 2.56 and 2.18 respectively obtained for casein. The protein digestibilities of the meals, concentrates and isolates (81 to 90%) were similar to that of casein (87%). The poor growth-promoting abilities of the meals, concentrates and isolates were possibly also due to growth-depressing factors such as tannins, trypsin inhibitors and hemagglutinins present, particularly in faba bean and lentil.

Key words

pea faba bean lentil protein concentrates and isolates chemical composition nutritional quality 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Abu-Shakara S, S Tamnous RI (1977) Nutritional value and quality of lentils In: Webb C and Hawtin G (eds) Lentils, England: Commonwealth Agriculture Bureau, pp 191–202Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) (1980) Official Methods of Analysis, 13th edn. Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhatty RS (1982) In vitro hydrolysis of skim milk and pea proteins by pepsin and rennin. Can Inst Food Sci Tech J 15:101–108Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhatty RS, Christison GI (1980) Digestibity of pea proteins by preruminant calves. Can J Animal Sci 60:925–930Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bhatty RS, Slinkard AE, Sosulski FW (1976) Chemical composition and protein characteristics of lentils. Can J Plant Sci 56:787–794Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bell JM, Young CG (1970) Studies with mice on the nutritional value of pea protein concentrate. Can J Animal Sci 50:219–226Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bell JM, Wilson AG (1970) An evaluation of field peas as a protein and energy source for swine rations. Can J Animal Sci 50:15–23Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bell JM, Harvey BE, Christison GI (1979) Effects of the addition of enzyme and carboxymethylcellulose to pea flour used for calf milk replacers. Can J Animal Sci 59:43–50Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chiang BY, Johnson JA (1977) Measurement of total and gelatinized starch by glucoamylase and o-toluidine reagent. Cereal Chem 54:429-Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fan TY, Sosulski FW (1974) Dispersability and isolation of proteins from legume flours. Can Institute Food Sci Tech J 7:256–259Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fleming SE, Reichert RD (1983) A comparison of the flatulence potential of field pea and soybean seed fractions. Can Inst Food Sci Tech J 16:30–34Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hackler LR (1977) Methods of measuring protein quality: a review of bioassay procedures. Cereal Chem 54:984–995Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marquardt RR, Campbell LD, Stothers SC, McKirdy JA (1974) Growth responses of chicks and rats fed diets containing four cultivars of raw or autoclaved faba beans. Can J Animal Sci 54:177–182Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marquardt RR, McKirdy JA, Ward T, Campbell LD (1975) Amino acid, hemagglutinin and trypsin inhibitor levels, and proximate analysis of faba bean fractions. Can J Animal Sci 55:421–429Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Marquardt RR, Ward AT, Cambell LD, Cansfield PE (1977) Purification, identification and characterization of a growth inhibitor in faba beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor). J Nutr 107:1313–1324Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    McDonald P, Edwards RA, Greenhalgh JFD (1973) Animal nutrition, second edition. Edinburgh: Oliver and BoydGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Murray ED, Myers CD, Barker LD (1978) Protein product and process for preparing same. Canadian Patient 1028552. Ottawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    National Research Council — National Academy of Sciences (1972) Nutrient requirements of Laboratory animals, second edition. Washington, DC: National Academy of sciencesGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Patel KM, Johnson JA (1974) Horse bean as protein supplement in bread-making 1. Isolation of horse bean protein and its amino acid composition. Cereal Chem 51: 693–701Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Patel PR, Youngs CG, Grant DR (1981) Preparation and properties of spray-dried pea protein concentrate-cheese whey blends. Cereal Chem 58:249–255Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sarwar G, Sosulski FW, Bell JM (1975) Nutritive value of field pea and faba bean proteins in rat diets. Can Inst Food Sci Tech J 8:109–112Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sarwar G, Sosulski FW, Bell JM (1977) Availability of amino acids in legumes and legume-wheat blends. Can Inst Food Sci Tech J 10:31–35Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sosulski FW, Youngs CG (1979) Yield and functional properties of air-classified protein and starch frations from eight grain legume flours. J Am Oil Chem Soc 56:292–295Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sosulski FW, Elkowicz L, Riechert RD (1982) Oligosaccharides in eleven legumes and their air-classified protein and starch fractions. J Food Sci 47:498–502Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tyler RT, Youngs CG, Sosulski (1981) Air-classification of legumes. 1. Separation efficiency, yield, and composition of the starch and protein fractions. Cereal Chem 58:144–148Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vose JR, Basterrechea MJ, Gorin PA, Finlayson AJ, Youngs CG (1976) Air-classification of field peas and horse bean flours: chemical studies of starch and protein fractions. Cereal Chem 53:928–936Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff/Dr W. Junk Publishers 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. S. Bhatty
    • 1
  • G. I. Christison
    • 2
  1. 1.Crop Development Centre, Department of Crop Science and Plant EcologyUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Animal and Poultry ScienceUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

Personalised recommendations