Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 151–159 | Cite as

Effects of heat treatments on trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinating activities in winged bean

  • S.S Kadam
  • R.R Smithard


The effect of different heat treatments on inactivation of trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin of winged bean was investigated. Trypsin inhibitor extracted from winged bean meal was stable at 60 °C for 60 min. At 80 °C, the activity of the extracted inhibitor decreased by 25% within 5 min, and continued to decline gradually to a loss of 45% of activity after 30 min. When the extracted inhibitor was incubated at 100 °C, it exhibited a triphasic pattern of inactivation. The winged bean extract incubated at 60 °C lost 60% of its hemaggluinating activity within 30 min. At 80 °C, there was a complete loss of activity within 5 min. The microwave treatment to winged bean meal had no effect on trypsin inhibitor or hemagglutinating activities in the meal. However, infrared treatment to winged bean seeds for 60 seconds was effective in destroying most of the trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinating activities. Autoclave treatment (120 °C at 15 lb pressure) for 10 min inactivated trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin in winged bean meal almost completely. Cooking of presoaked beans in boiling water for 30 min was effective in destroying most of the trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinating activities.

Key words

winged bean heat treatments trypsin inhibitor hemagglutinin 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bhatia HM, Allen FH Jr (1962) Nonspecific seed agglutinins and blood group specificity study of fifteen lectins. Vox Sanguinis 7:83–88Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chan J, deLumen BO (1982) Properties of trypsin inhibitor from winged bean seed isolated by affinity chromatography. J Agric Food Chem 30:42–46Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chan J, deLumen BO (1982) Biological effects of isolated trypsin inhibitor from winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) on rats. J Agric Food Chem 30:46–50Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cerney K, Kordy M, Paspisi F, Suabensky O, Zajic B (1971) Nutritive value of the winged bean (Psophocarpus palustris Devs.). Brit J Nutr 26:293–298Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    DeLumen BO, Salamat LA (1980) Trypsin inhibitor activity in winged beanPsophocarpus tetragonolobus) and possible role of tannins. J Agric Food Chem 28:533–536Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    DeMuelenaere HJJ (1964) Effect of heat treatment on the hemagglutinating activity of legume. Nature (London) 201:1029–1030Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eyre MD, Smithard RR (1984) The effects of processing of rapeseed upon its antithyroid activity and the utilization of its protein. J Sci Food Agric 35:827–832Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fernandez R, Elias LG, Edgar-Braham J, Bressani R (1982) Trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinins in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and their relationship with the contents of tannins and associated polyphenols. J Agric Food Chem 30:734–739Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hamerstrand GE, Black LT, Glover JD (1981) Trypsin inhibitors in soy products: Modifications of the standard analytical procedure. Cereal Chem 58:42–45Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hutton K, Foxcroft PD (1974) Effect of processing temperature on some indices of nutritional significance for micronized soya beans. Proc Nutr Soc 34:49AGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jaffe WG (1980) Hemagglutinins (lectins) In: Liener IE (ed) Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs. Academic Press, New York, pp 73–102Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jaffe WG, Korte R (1976) Nutritional characteristics of the winged bean in rats. Nutr Rep Intl 14:449–456Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kadam SS, Salunkhe DK (1984) Winged bean in human nutrition. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 21:1–40Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kadam SS, Smithard RR, Eyre MD, Armstrong DG (1986) Effects of heat treatments on antinutritional factors and quality of proteins in winged bean. J Sci Food Agric (under submission)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kute LS, Kadam SS, Salunkhe DK (1984) Changes in sugars, starch and trypsin inhibitor activity in winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. DC) during seed development. J Food Sci 49:314–315Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kortt AA (1979) Isolation and characterization of trypsin inhibitor from winged bean seed (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus). Biochim Biophys Acta 577:371–376Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liener IE, Kakade ML (1980) Protease inhibitors In: Liener IE (ed) Toxic Constituents of Plant Foodstuffs. Academic Press, New York, p 20Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    NAS (National Academy of Sciences) (1975) The Winged Bean—A high protein crop for the tropics, National Academy of Sciences, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Okezie BO, Martin FW (1980) Chemical composition of dry seeds and fresh leaves of winged bean varieties grown in the US and Puerto Rico. J Food Sci 45:1045–1051Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pusztai A, Clark EMW, King TP (1979) The nutritional toxicity ofPhaseolus vulgaris lectins. Proc Nutr Soc 38:115–121Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rackis JJ, McGhee JE, Booth AN (1975) Biological threshold levels of soybean trypsin inhibitor by rat bioassay. Cereal Chem 52:85–92Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Renkonen KO (1948) Studies on Hemagglutinins present in seeds and some representative of family of leguminosae. Ann Med ExpGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sathe EK, Salunkhe DK (1981) Investigations on winged bean (Psophocarpus tetrogonolobus L. DC): proteins and antinutritional factors. J Food Sci 46:1389–1394Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schertz KF, Boyd WC, Judgesky W, Cabanillas E (1968) Seed extract with agglutinating activity of human blood. Econ Bot 14:232–238Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sohonie K, Bhandarkar AP (1954) Trypsin inhibitors in Indian Foodstuffs. I. Inhibitors in vegetables. J Sci Indu Res 13B:500–504Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tan NH, Lowe ESH, Iskander M (1982) The extractability of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) seed trypsin inhibitors. J Food Sci 33:327–331Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tan NH, Wong KC (1982) Thermal stability of trypsin inhibitor activity in winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus). J Agric Food Chem 30:1140–1144Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tan NH, Rahim ZHA, Khor HT, Wong KC (1983) Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetrag onolobus) tannin level, phytate content and hemagglutinating activity. J Agric Food Chem 31:916–917Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yagi F, Sakamoto M, Sayawaki T, Tadera R, Kobayashi A, Ishihata K (1985) Lectins in immature pods of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus L. DC). Agric Biol Chem 49:3575–3581Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • S.S Kadam
    • 1
  • R.R Smithard
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural Biochemistry and NutritionUniversity of Newcastle upon TyneNewcastle upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations