Journal of Insect Behavior

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 355–369 | Cite as

Oviposition behavior and progeny allocation of the polyembryonic waspCopidosoma floridanum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae)

  • M. R. Strand
Article

Abstract

Oviposition behavior was used to determine the primary clutch size and sex ratio of the polyembryonic wasp Copidosoma floridanumAshmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) parasitizing Pseudoplusia includens(Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The laying of a female egg was associated with a pause in abdominal contractions during oviposition, while the laying of a male egg was associated with uninterrupted abdominal contractions. Although unmated females produced only male broods, they also displayed male and female egg oviposition movements. Wasps always laid a primary clutch of one or two eggs. For mated females if only one egg was laid, the emerging secondary clutch was all male or female, but if two eggs were laid a mixed brood of males and females was almost always produced. The secondary clutch of single sex broods was usually between 1000 and 1200 individuals, but the secondary clutch of mixed broods averaged 1143 females and 49 males. Thus, the primary sex ratio for mixed broods was 0.5 (frequency males), but the secondary sex ratio was 0.042. Manipulation of the sequence of male and female egg oviposition or of the primary clutch did not produce major alterations in the secondary clutch size or sex ratio.

Key words

parasitoid polyembryonic clutch sex ratio development 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Askew, R. R. (1970).Parasitic Insects, American Eisevier, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Benson, J. F. (1973). Intraspecific competition in the population dynamics ofBracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).J. Anim. Ecol. 42: 105–124.Google Scholar
  3. Chacko, M. (1969). The phenomenon of superparasitism inTrichogramma evanescens andT. minutum Riley (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae).I.Beit. Entomol. 19: 618–635.Google Scholar
  4. Charnov, E. L. (1982).The Theory of Sex Allocation. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.Google Scholar
  5. Charnov, E. L., and Skinner, S. W. (1984). Evolution of host selection and clutch size in parasitoid wasps.Fla. Entomol. 67: 5–21.Google Scholar
  6. Charnov, E. L., los-den Hartogh, R. L., Jones, W. T., and van den Assem, J. (1981). Sex ratio evolution in a variable environment.Nature 289: 27–33.Google Scholar
  7. Cole, L. R., (1981). A visible sign of a fertilization action during oviposition by an ichneumonid wasp,Itoplectis maculator.Anim. Behav. 29: 299–300.Google Scholar
  8. Cruz, Y. P. (1986). Development of the polyembryonic parasiteCopidosomopsis tanytmemus (Hymenoptera: Encrytidae).Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 79: 121–127.Google Scholar
  9. Gerber, H. S., and Klostermeyer, E. C. (1970). Sex control by bees: A voluntary act of egg fertilization during oviposition.Science 167: 82–84.Google Scholar
  10. Godfray, H. C. J. (1986a). Models for clutch size and sex ratio with sibling interaction.Theor. Pop. Biol. 30: 215–231.Google Scholar
  11. Godfray, H. C. J. (1986b). Evolutionary constraints on clutch size production in parasitic wasps.Am. Nat. 129: 221–233.Google Scholar
  12. Godfray, H. C. J. (1987). The evolution of clutch sizes in invertebrates. In Harvey, P. H., and Partridge, L. (eds.),Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, Oxford University Press, London, pp. 117–154.Google Scholar
  13. Green, R. F., Gordh, G. C., and Hawkins, B. A. (1982). Precise sex ratios in highly inbred parasitic wasps.Am. Nat. 120: 653–655.Google Scholar
  14. Greene, G. L., Leppla, N. C., and Dickerson, W. A. (1976). Velvetbean caterpillar: A rearing procedure and artificial medium.J. Econ. Entomol. 69: 487–488.Google Scholar
  15. Grun, P. (1976).Cytoplasmic Genetics and Evolution, Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Hamilton, W. D. (1967). Extraordinary sex ratios.Science 156: 477–488.Google Scholar
  17. Ivariova-Kasas, O. M. (1972). Polyembryony in insects. In Counce, S. J., and Waddington, C. H. (eds.),Developmental Systems, Insects, Vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, pp. 243–272.Google Scholar
  18. Iwasa, Y., Suzuki, Y., and Matsuda, H. (1984). Theory of oviposition strategy of parasitids. i. Effect of mortality and limited egg number.Theor. Pop. Biol. 26: 205–227.Google Scholar
  19. Leiby, R. W. (1922). The polyembryonic development ofCopidosoma gelechiae with notes on its biology.J. Morphol. 37: 195–285.Google Scholar
  20. Leiby, R. W. (1926). The origin of mixed broods in polyembryonic Hymenoptera.Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 19: 290–299.Google Scholar
  21. Orzack, S. H., and Parker, E. D. (1986). Sex-ratio control in aparasitic wasp,Nasonia vitripennis. I. Genetic variation in facultative sex-ratio adjustment.Evolution 40: 331–340.Google Scholar
  22. Ott, L. (1984).An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis, Duxbury Press, Boston.Google Scholar
  23. Parker, G. A., and Courtney, S. P. (1984). Models of clutch size in insect oviposition.Theor. Pop. Biol. 26: 27–48.Google Scholar
  24. Patterson, J. T. (1919). Polyembryony and sex.J. Hered. 10: 344–352.Google Scholar
  25. Patterson, J. T. (1921). The development ofParacopidosomopsis.J. Morphol. 36: 1–69.Google Scholar
  26. Pickering, J. (1980). Larval competition and brood sex ratios in the gregarious parasitoidPachysomoides stupidus.Nature 283: 291–292.Google Scholar
  27. Silvestri, F. (1906). Contribuzioni alia conoscenza biologica degli Imenotteri parassiti. Biologia delLitomastix truncatellus (Dalm.) (2∘ nota preliminare).Ann. Regia Sc. Agr. Portici 6: 3–51.Google Scholar
  28. Skinner, S. W. (1982). Maternally inherited sex ratio in the parasitoid waspNasonia vitripennis.Science 215: 133–134.Google Scholar
  29. Skinner, S. W. (1985). Clutch size as an optimal foraging problem for insects.Behav. Ecol. Socio-biol. 17: 231–238.Google Scholar
  30. Stoner, A., and Weeks, R. E. (1976).Copidosoma truncatellum, a polyembryonic parasite ofTrichoplusia ni: Age of host eggs parasitised, searching, fecundity, and effectiveness.Environ. Entomol. 5: 323–328.Google Scholar
  31. Strand, M. R. (1988). Adaptive patterns of progeny and sex allocation by parasitic Hymenoptera. In Gupta, V. (ed.),Advances in Parasitic Hymenoptera, E. J. Brill, Amsterdam (in press).Google Scholar
  32. Suzuki, Y. H., Tsuji, H., and Sasakawa, M. (1984). Sex allocation and effects of superparasitism on secondary sex ratios in the gregarious parasitoidTrichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae).Anim. Behav. 32: 478–484.Google Scholar
  33. Waage, J. K. (1982). Sib-mating and sex ratio strategies in scelionid wasps.Ecol. Entomol. 7: 103–112.Google Scholar
  34. Waage, J. K. (1986). Family planning in parasitoids: Adaptive patterns of progeny and sex allocation. In Waage, J., and Greathead, D. (eds.),Insect Parasitoids, Academic Press, London, pp. 63–96.Google Scholar
  35. Waage, J. K., and Lane, J. A. (1984). The reproductive strategy of a parasitic wasp. II. Sex allocation and local mate competition inTrichogramma evanescens.J. Anim. Ecol. 53: 417–426Google Scholar
  36. Waage, J. K., and Ng, S. M. (1984). The reproductive strategy of a parasitic wasp. I. Optimal progeny and sex allocation inTrichogramma evanescens.J. Anim. Ecol. 53: 401–416.Google Scholar
  37. Waage, J. K., and Godfray, H. C. J. (1985). Reproductive strategies and population ecology of insect parasitoids. In Sibley, R. M., and Smith, R. H. (eds.),Behavioural Ecology, Ecological Consequences of Adaptive Behaviour, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp. 449–470.Google Scholar
  38. Werren, J. H., Skinner, S. W., and Charnov, E. L. (1981). Paternal inheritance of a daughterless sex ratio factor.Nature 293: 467–468.Google Scholar
  39. Werren, J. H., Skinner, S. W., and Huger, A. M. (1986). Male killing bacteria in a parasitic wasp.Science 231: 990–992.Google Scholar
  40. Wylie, H. G. (1976). Interference among females ofNasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) and its effect on sex ratio of their progeny.Can. Entomol. 108: 655–661.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Strand
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of WisconsinMadison

Personalised recommendations