Nitrogen fertilizer use in rainfed agriculture


Agronomic efficiency (AE) is defined as the increase in economic yield of a crop per unit fertilizer applied. Components of AE are physiological efficiency and apparent recovery fraction. The latter can be further separated into uptake efficiency and availability index. Ways to increase the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency in rainfed agriculture through fertilizer management are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

4. References

  1. 1.

    Bremner JM and Keeney DR (1966) Determination and isotope-ratio analysis of different forms of nitrogen in soils: 3. Exchangeable ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite by extraction-distillation methods. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc, 30, 577–582

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Cooper PJM (1983) Crop management in rainfed agriculture with special reference to water use efficiency. In: Nutrient balances and the need for fertilizers in semiarid and arid regions. IPI, Bern

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Cooper PJM, Keatinge JDH and Hughes G (1983) Crop evapotranspiration — A technique for calculation of its components by field measurement. Accepted for publication by Field Crops Research

  4. 4.

    FAO (1969) FFHC Fertilizer Programme, Consolidated review of trial and demonstration results, 1961/62–1965/66. Report LA: FFHC/69/9-WS/94417, FAO, Rome

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Harmsen K (1983) Dynamics of mineral nitrogen in soils in Northwest Syria. Transactions, Symposium on biological processes and soil fertility, University of Reading, Reading, UK

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Harmsen K, Shepherd KD and Allan AY (1983) Crop response to nitrogen and phosphorus in rainfed agriculture. In: Nutrient balances and the need for fertilizers in semi-arid and arid regions. IPI, Bern

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Harvey JA (1980) Planting methods for winter crops in NW Syria. Discussion Paper 6, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria

    Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    ICARDA (1981) Soil water and nutrient research 1979–80. Project report No. 3 (Oct., 1981), Farming Systems Research Program, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Jackson TL (1977) Fertilizer needs for developing countries. International symposium on rainfed agriculture in semi-arid regions, Proceedings, pp. 541–551. University of California, Riverside, California

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Novoa R and Loomis RS (1981) Nitrogen and plant production. Plant and Soil, 58: 177–204

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Sillanpää M (1982) Micronutrients and the nutrient status of soils: A global study. FAO Soils Bulletin 48, FAO, Rome

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    USDA (1975) Soil Taxonomy. Agriculture Handbook No. 436. Soil Conservation Service, US Dept Agriculture, Washington DC

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Vlek PLG, Fillery IRP and Burford JR (1981) Accession, transformation, and loss of nitrogen in soils of the arid region. Plant and Soil 58: 133–175

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    West NE and Skujins J (1978) Nitrogen in desert ecosystems. US/IBP Series No. 9, Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Williams PC and Jaby El-Haramein F (1982) Report on baking quality of commercial bakers flour from the Aleppo Region. ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Harmsen, K. Nitrogen fertilizer use in rainfed agriculture. Fertilizer Research 5, 371–382 (1984).

Download citation

Key words

  • nitrogen
  • phosphorus
  • dry areas
  • apparent recovery fraction
  • fertilizer management