3. Technologies for utilizing biological nitrogen fixation in wetland rice: Potentialities, current usage, and limiting factors

Abstract

Almost all types of N2-fixing microorganisms are found in lowland rice fields. The resulting N fertility has permitted moderate but constant productivity in fields where no N fertilizer is applied. Current and potential technologies for utilizing biological N2 fixation in lowland rice production are reviewed in terms of potential, current usage, and limiting factors.

Legumes and azolla have been traditionally used as green manure in parts of Asia, permitting yields of 2–4 t/ha. To a limited extent, straw incorporation favors heterotrophic biological N2 fixation. Recently, inoculation with blue-green algae has been claimed to increase yields by about 10%. Using non-symbiotic N2-fixing systems is still experimental.

Utilization of biological N2 fixation as an alternative or additional N source for rice is severely limited by technological, environmental, and socioeconomical factors.

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Roger, P., Watanabe, I. 3. Technologies for utilizing biological nitrogen fixation in wetland rice: Potentialities, current usage, and limiting factors. Fertilizer Research 9, 39–77 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01048695

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Key words

  • nitrogen fixation
  • lowland rice
  • azolla
  • blue-green algae
  • legumes
  • straw
  • technology
  • review