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Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 258–278 | Cite as

Landsat Thematic Mapper observations of debris avalanche deposits in the Central Andes

  • P. W. Francis
  • G. L. Wells
Article

Abstract

Remote sensing studies of the Central Andean volcanic province between 18°–27°S with the Landsat Thematic Mapper have revealed the presence of 28 previously undescribed breached volcanic cones and 14 major volcanic debris avalanche deposits, of which only 3 had previously been identified. Several of the debris avalanche deposits cover areas in excess of 100 km2 and have volumes of the order of 10 km3. H/L ratios for the deposits have a median of 0.1 and a mean of 0.11, values similar to those determined for deposits described in other regions. Surface morphologies commonly include the hummocky topography of small hillocks and enclosed basins that is typical of avalanche deposits, but some examples exhibit smoother surfaces characterised by longitudinal grooves and ridges. These differences may result from the effects of flow confinement by topography or from variations in resistance to shearing in the materials involved. Breached composite cones and debris avalanche deposits tend to occur at right angles to regional tectonic elements, suggesting possible seismic involvement in triggering collapse and providing an additional consideration for assessment of areas at risk from collapse. The low denudation rate in the Central Andes, coupled with the predominance of viscous dacite lavas in volcanic edifices, produces unusually steep cones which may result in a higher incidence of volcano collapse than in other regions. A statistical survey of 578 composite volcanoes in the study area indicates that a majority of cones which achieve edifice heights between 2000–3000 m may undergo sector collapse.

Keywords

Volcanic Edifice Landsat Thematic Mapper Volcanic Province Volcanic Cone Denudation Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. W. Francis
    • 1
  • G. L. Wells
    • 1
  1. 1.Lunar and Planetary InstituteHoustonUSA

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