Bulletin of Volcanology

, Volume 50, Issue 4, pp 215–228 | Cite as

Detailed record of SO2 emissions from Pu'u `O`o between episodes 33 and 34 of the 1983–86 ERZ eruption, Kilauea, Hawaii

  • Torrie A. Chartier
  • William I. Rose
  • J. Barry Stokes


A tripod-mounted correlation spectrometer was used to measure SO2 emissions from Pu`u `O`o vent, mid-ERZ, Kilauea, Hawaii between Episodes 33 and 34 (June 13 to July 6, 1985). In 24 repose days, 906 measurements were collected, averaging 38 determinations/day. Measurements reflect 13% of the total 576 hours of the repose and 42% of the bright daylight hours. The average SO2 emission for the 24-day repose interval is 167±83 t/d, a total of 4000 tonnes emitted for the entire repose. The large standard deviation reflects the “puffing” character of the plume. The overall rate of SO2 degassing gently decreased with a zero-intercept of 44–58 days and was interrupted by two positive peaks. The data are consistent with the gas emanating from a cylindrical conduit of 50 meter diameter and a length of 1700 meters which degasses about 50% of its SO2 during 24 days. This is in support of the Pu'u `O`o model of Greenland et al. (1987). 36 hours before the onset of Episode 34 (July 5–6, 1985), elevated SO2 emissions were detected while the magma column was extremely active ultimately spilling over during dome fountaining. A “mid-repose” anomaly of SO2 emission (June 21–22, 1985) occurs two days before a sudden increase in the rate of summit inflation (on June 24, 1985), suggesting magma was simultaneously being injected in both the ERZ and summit reservoir until July 24 when it was channelled only to the summit reservoir. This implies degassing magma is sensitive to perturbations within the rift zone conduit system and may at times reflect these disturbances. Periods of 7–45 min are detected in the daily SO2 emissions, which possibly reflect timing of convective overturn in the cylindrical magma body. If the 33–34 repose interval is considered representative of other repose periods, the ERZ reposes of Jan 1983–Jan 1986 ERZ activity, contributed 1.6 × 105 tonnes of SO2 to the atmosphere. Including summit fuming from non-eruptive fumaroles (2.7 × 105 tonnes SO2); 28% of the total SO2 budget from Kilauea between Jan 1983 to Jan 1986 was contributed by quiescent degassing, and the remainder was released during explosive fountaining episodes.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Berresheim H, Jaeschke W (1983) The contribution of volcanoes to the global atmospheric sulfur budget. J Geophys Res 88:3732–3740Google Scholar
  2. Casadevall TJ, Greenland LP (1981) The chemistry of gases emanating from Mount St.Helens, May–September 1980, USGS Prof Paper 1250:221–226Google Scholar
  3. Casadevall TJ, Johnston DA, Harris DM, Rose WI, Jr, Malinconico LL, Stoiber RE, Bornhorst TJ, Williams SN, Woodruff L, Thompson JM (1981) SO2 emission rate at Mount St. Helens from March 29 through December, 1980, USGS Prof Paper 1250:193–200Google Scholar
  4. Casadevall TJ, Stokes JB, Greenland LP, Malinconico LL, Furukawa BT (1985) SO2 and CO2 emission rates at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, 1979–1984, USGS Prof Paper 1350: 771–780Google Scholar
  5. Crafford TC (1975) SO2 emission of the 1974 eruption of Volcan Fuego, Guatemala. Bull Volcanol 39:536–556Google Scholar
  6. Cullis CF, Hirschler MM (1980) Atmospheric sulphur: Natural and man-made sources. Atmos Env 14:1263–1278Google Scholar
  7. Dzurisin D, Koyanagi RY, English TT (1984) Magma supply and storage at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, 1956–1983. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 21:177–206Google Scholar
  8. Gerlach TM (1980) Evaluation of volcanic gas analyses from Kilauea analyses from Kilauea volcano. J Volcanol Geoth Res 7:295–317Google Scholar
  9. Gerlach TM, Graeber EJ (1985) The volatile budget of Kilauea. Nature 313:273–277Google Scholar
  10. Greeley R (1974) Guidebook to the Hawaiian Planetology Conference, NASA/Ames Research Center, 257 pGoogle Scholar
  11. Greenland LP (1984) Gas composition of the January 1983 eruption of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48:193–195Google Scholar
  12. Greenland LP, Rose WI, Stokes JB (1985) An estimate of gas emissions and magmatic content form Kilauea volcano. Geochim Cosmo Acta 49:125–129Google Scholar
  13. Greenland LP, Okamura Ar, Stokes JB (1987) Constraints on the mechanics of eruption of Pu`u `O`o, USGS Prof Paper 1463 (in press)Google Scholar
  14. Hamilton PM, Varey RH, Mill n MM (1978) Remote sensing of sulphur dioxide. Atmos Envir 12:127–133Google Scholar
  15. Harding D, Miller JM (1982) The influence on rain chemistry of the Hawaiian volcano, Kilauea. J Geophys Res 87:1225–1230Google Scholar
  16. Haulet R, Zettwoog R, Saborux JC (1977) Sulphur dioxide discharge from Mount Etna. Nature 268:715–717Google Scholar
  17. Hoff RM, Mill n MM (1981) Remote SO2 mass flux measurements using COSPEC. APCA Journal 31:381–384Google Scholar
  18. Husar RB (1986) Emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and trends for eastern North America, In: Acid Deposition, Long-term Trends. National Academy Press, Washington DC, pp 48–92Google Scholar
  19. Jaeschke W, Berresheim H, Georgii H (1982) Sulfur emissions from Mt. Etna. J Geophys Res 87:7253–7261Google Scholar
  20. Malinconico LL, Jr (1979) Fluctuations in SO2 emission during recent eruption of Etna, Nature 278:43–45Google Scholar
  21. Millan MM (1980) Remote sensing of air pollutants: A study of some atmospheric scattering effects. Atmos Env 14:1241–1253Google Scholar
  22. O'Neill PO (1985) Sulfur, In: Environmental Chemistry, George Allen and Unwin (Publishers) Ltd., London, pp 108–124Google Scholar
  23. Rose WI, Jr, Chuan RL, Kyle PR (1985) Rate of sulphur dioxide emission from Erebus volcano, Antarctica. Nature 316:710–712Google Scholar
  24. Rose WI, Jr, Chuan RL, Giggenbach WF, Kyle PR, Symonds RB (1986) Rates of sulfur dioxide and particle emission from White Island volcano, New Zealand, and an estimate of the total flux of major gaseous species, Bull Volcanol 48:181–188Google Scholar
  25. Stoiber RE, Jepsen (1973) Sulfur dioxide contributions to the atmosphere by volcanoes. Science 182:577–578Google Scholar
  26. Stoiber RE, Malinconico LL, Williams SN (1983) Use of correlation spectrometers at volcanoes, In: Tazieff H, Sabroux JC (eds) Forecasting Volcanic Events, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 425–444Google Scholar
  27. Stoiber RE, Williams SN, Huebert B (1986) Annual contributions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere by volcanoes. J Volcanol Geoth Res 33:1–8Google Scholar
  28. Wiens R (1974) New performance characteristics of the Barringer correlation spectrometer, copies available at: Barringer Research, Lts, 304 Carlingview Dr, Rexdale, Ontario, M9W 5G2, Attn: Marketing Dept, 15 pGoogle Scholar
  29. Williams SN, Stoiber RE, Garcia PN, Londoso CA, Gemmel JB, Lowe DR, Connor CR (1986) Eruption of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Columbia, on 13 November, 1985: Gas flux and fluid geochemistry. Science 233:964–967Google Scholar
  30. Wolfe E, Garcia MO, Jackson DB, Koyanagi RY, Neal C, Okamura AT (1987) The Pu`u `O`o eruption of Kilauea Volcano: Episodes 1–20, January 3, 1983–June 8, 1984, USGS Prof Paper 1350:471–508Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Torrie A. Chartier
    • 1
  • William I. Rose
    • 1
  • J. Barry Stokes
    • 2
  1. 1.Michigan Technological UniversityHoughtonUSA
  2. 2.US Geological SurveyHawaiian Volcano ObservatoryUSA

Personalised recommendations