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It is a matter of common experience that ore values often do not follow the normal (or lognormal) distributions assumed for them, but, instead, follow some other heavier-tailed distribution. In this paper we discuss the robust estimation of the variogram when the distribution is normal-like in the central region but heavier than normal in the tails. It is shown that the use of a fourth-root transformation with or without the use of M-estimation yields stable robust estimates of the variogram.

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Visiting Scientist, NRIMS, during the period in which this work was carried out.

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Cressie, N., Hawkins, D.M. Robust estimation of the variogram: I. Mathematical Geology 12, 115–125 (1980).

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