Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 113–124 | Cite as

Tunnelling in difficult ground — Swelling behaviour and identification of swelling rocks

  • H. H. Einstein


This brief review first describes typical swelling phenomena in underground openings and then discusses in detail the underlying swelling mechanisms. Mechanical, osmotic and intracrystalline swelling in argillaceous ground, as well as hydration of anhydrite are described. The fact that many of these mechanisms interact and, particularly, that swelling and squeezing may occur simultaneously is emphasized. The paper concludes with a few comments on implications on analysis, design and construction.


Hydration Civil Engineer Anhydrite Underground Opening Swell Behaviour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. H. Einstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeU.S.A.

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