A note on the simulation of winter monsoon anomalies during an El Niño year
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This paper presents the results of the Florida State University atmospheric general circulation model that addresses the impact of sea surface temperature anomalies on an El Niño year. Northern Hemisphere winter season simulation. Specifically, our interest is in the simulation of seasonal winter monsoonal rainfall, the planetary scale divergent motions and the westerly wind anomalies of an El Niño year.
The El Niño episode of 1982–1983 was interesting due to its higher than average amplitude and its overall evolution. By late 1982 the anomalous circulations associated with the sea surface temperature forcing had begun to take shape even though the anomalies did not attain their peak amplitude until February 1983. The atmosphere-ocean teleconnections set up a strong pattern of geopotential height anomalies during the Northern Hemisphere winter that coincides with El Niño conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean.
Wallace and Gutzler (1981) defined a Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern index based on data from within this region. The El Niño episode of 1982–1983 has been shown to be strong via the PNA Index and illustrates an importance for climate models to correctly simulate these teleconnections. The importance of the forced anomalies can be seen in the long-range forecasting of conditions over North America as well as the winter monsoon intensity and location.
In this study, we utilize a general circulation model with a resolution of triangular truncation at 42 waves to investigate the effects of prescribed sea surface temperature anomalies. We are able to simulate the majority of the large-scale atmospheric response although on regional climatic scales some phase shifts seem apparent.
KeywordsWinter Monsoon Atmospheric General Circulation Model Tropical Pacific Ocean Geopotential Height Anomaly Pacific North American
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