Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics

, Volume 53, Issue 1–2, pp 51–59 | Cite as

A note on the simulation of winter monsoon anomalies during an El Niño year

  • T. N. Krishnamurti
  • G. Rohaly
  • D. Oosterhof


This paper presents the results of the Florida State University atmospheric general circulation model that addresses the impact of sea surface temperature anomalies on an El Niño year. Northern Hemisphere winter season simulation. Specifically, our interest is in the simulation of seasonal winter monsoonal rainfall, the planetary scale divergent motions and the westerly wind anomalies of an El Niño year.

The El Niño episode of 1982–1983 was interesting due to its higher than average amplitude and its overall evolution. By late 1982 the anomalous circulations associated with the sea surface temperature forcing had begun to take shape even though the anomalies did not attain their peak amplitude until February 1983. The atmosphere-ocean teleconnections set up a strong pattern of geopotential height anomalies during the Northern Hemisphere winter that coincides with El Niño conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean.

Wallace and Gutzler (1981) defined a Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern index based on data from within this region. The El Niño episode of 1982–1983 has been shown to be strong via the PNA Index and illustrates an importance for climate models to correctly simulate these teleconnections. The importance of the forced anomalies can be seen in the long-range forecasting of conditions over North America as well as the winter monsoon intensity and location.

In this study, we utilize a general circulation model with a resolution of triangular truncation at 42 waves to investigate the effects of prescribed sea surface temperature anomalies. We are able to simulate the majority of the large-scale atmospheric response although on regional climatic scales some phase shifts seem apparent.


Winter Monsoon Atmospheric General Circulation Model Tropical Pacific Ocean Geopotential Height Anomaly Pacific North American 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Blackmon, M. L., Geisler, J. E., Pitcher, E. J., 1983: A general circulation study of January climate anomaly patterns associated with interannual variation of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures.J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 1410–1425.Google Scholar
  2. Bounoua, L., Krishnamurti, T. N., 1993a: Influence of soil moisture on the Sahelian climate prediction—Part I.Meteorol. Atmos. Phys.,52, 183–203.Google Scholar
  3. Bounoua, L., Krishnamurti, T. N., 1993b: Influence of soil moisture on the Sahelian climate prediction—Part II.Meteorol. Atmos. Phys.,52, 205–224.Google Scholar
  4. Businger, J. A., Wyngard, J. C., Izumi, Y., Bradley, E. F., 1971: Flux profile relationship in the atmospheric surface layer.J. Atmos. Sci.,28, 181–189.Google Scholar
  5. Chang, C. B., 1979: On the influence of solar radiation and diurnal variation of surface temperatures on African disturbances. Rep. No. 79-3, Department of Meteorology, Florida State University, 1–157. (Avail. from Dept. of Meteor., Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306).Google Scholar
  6. Fennessy, M. J., Marx, L., Shulka, J., 1985: General circulation model sensitivity to 1982–1983 equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies.Mon. Wea. Rev.,113, 858–864.Google Scholar
  7. Gairola, R. K., Krishnamurti, T. N., 1992: Rainrates based on SSM/I, OLR and raingauge data sets.Meteorol. Atmos. Phys.,50, 165–174.Google Scholar
  8. Geisler, J. E., Blackmon, M. L., Bates, G. T., Muñoz, S., 1985: Sensitivity of January climate response to the magnitude and position of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies.J. Atmos. Sci.,42, 1037–1049.Google Scholar
  9. Julian, P. R., Chervin, R. M., 1978: A study of the Southern Oscillation and Walker circulation phenomenon.Mon. Wea. Rev.,106, 1433–1451.Google Scholar
  10. Kanamitsu, M., 1975: On numerical prediction over a global tropical belt. Report No. 75-1, Department of Meteorology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, pp. 1–282.Google Scholar
  11. Kanamitsu, M., Krishnamurti, T. N., 1978: Northern summer tropical circulations during drought and normal rainfall months.Mon. Wea. Rev.,106, 331–347.Google Scholar
  12. Kanamitsu, M., Tada, K., Kudo, K., Sato, N., Isa, S., 1983: Description of the JMA operational spectral model.J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,61, 812–828.Google Scholar
  13. Keshavamurty, R. N., 1982: Response of the atmosphere to sea surface temperature anomalies over the equatorial Pacific and the teleconnections of the Southern Oscillations.J. Atmos. Sci.,39, 1241–1259.Google Scholar
  14. Krishnamurti, T. N., Low-Nam, S., Pasch, R., 1983: Cumulus parameterization and rainfall rates II.Mon. Wea. Rev.,111, 816–828.Google Scholar
  15. Krishnamurti, T. N., Bedi, H. S., Heckley, W., Ingles, K. J., 1988: On the reduction of spin up time for evaporation and precipitation in a global spectral model.Mon. Wea. Rev.,116, 907–920.Google Scholar
  16. Krishnamurti, T. N., Bedi, H. S., Rohaly, G., Fulakeza, M., Oosterhof, D., Ingles, K., 1993: Seasonal monsoon forecast for the years 1987 and 1988.Global and Planetary Change (in press).Google Scholar
  17. Kuo, H. L., 1965: On formulation and intensification of tropical cyclones through latent heat release by cumulus convection.J. Atmos. Sci.,22, 40–63.Google Scholar
  18. Kuo, H. L., 1974: Further studies of the parameterization of the influence of cumulus convection on large scale flow.J. Atmos. Sci.,31, 1232–1240.Google Scholar
  19. Louis, Jean-Francois, 1981: A parametric model of vertical eddy fluxes in the atmosphere.Bound.-Layer Meteor.,17, 187–202.Google Scholar
  20. Palmer, T. N., Mansfield, D. A., 1986a: A study of winter time circulation anomalies during past El Niño events, using a high-resolution general circulation model I: Influence of model climatology.Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,112, 613–638.Google Scholar
  21. Palmer, T. N., Mansfield, D. A., 1986b: A study of winter time circulation anomalies during past El Niño events, using a high-resolution general circulation model II: Variability of the seasonal mean response.Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,112, 639–660.Google Scholar
  22. Randall, D. A., 1982: Monthly and seasonal simulations with the GLAS climate model.Proc. Workshop on Intercomparison of Large-scale Models Used for Extended Range Forecasts of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF, Reading, U.K., 464 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Rasmusson, E. M., Wallace, J. M., 1983: Meteorological aspects of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation.Science,222, 1195–1202.Google Scholar
  24. Reynolds, R. W., Roberts, L., 1987: A global sea surface temperature climatology from in situ, satellite and ice data.Trop. Ocean-Atmos. Newsletter,37, 15–17. [Available from Rosentiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149].Google Scholar
  25. Shulka, J., Wallace, J. M., 1983: Numerical simulation of the atmosphere response to equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies.J. Atmos. Sci.,40, 1613–1630.Google Scholar
  26. Slutz, R. J., Lubker, S. J., Hiscox, J. D., Woodruff, S. D., Jenne, R. L., Joseph, D. H., Steurer, P. M., Elms, J. D., 1985: COADS, Comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set.Release, I, 262 pp. [Available from Climate Research Program, Environmental Research Lab, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80303].Google Scholar
  27. Tiedtke, M., 1984: The sensitivity of the time-mean largescale flow to cumulus convection in the ECMWF model. Workshop on convection in large-scale numerical models. ECMWF, 28 Nov.-1 Dec. 1983, 297–316.Google Scholar
  28. Tokioka, T., Kitch, A., Katayama, A., 1985a: Atmospheric response to the sea surface temperature anomalies in the mature phase of El Niño under perpetual January condition.J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,64, 347–362.Google Scholar
  29. Tokioka, T., Yamazaki, K., Chiba, M., 1985b: Atmospheric response to the sea surface temperature anomalies observed in early summer of 1983: A numerical experiment.J. Meteor. Soc. Japan,63, 565–588.Google Scholar
  30. Wallace, J. M., Gutzler, D. S., 1981: Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the Northern Hemisphere winter.Mon. Wea. Rev.,109, 784–812.Google Scholar
  31. Wallace, J. M., Tibaldi, S., Simmons, A. J., 1983: Reduction of systematic forecast errors in the ECMWF model through the introduction of envelope orography.Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,109, 683–718.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. N. Krishnamurti
    • 1
  • G. Rohaly
    • 1
  • D. Oosterhof
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MeteorologyFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

Personalised recommendations