Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics

, Volume 38, Issue 3, pp 131–139 | Cite as

Exploration of the remote sounding of infrared cooling rates due to water vapor

  • Kuo-Nan Liou
  • Yongkang Xue


We explore the feasibility of deriving atmospheric infrared cooling rates by direct inversion of radiances observed by satellites from space. In order to convert radiances to fluxes and achieve vertical profiling at the same time, we show that it is necessary to combine radiances from narrow channels with radiances averaged over spectral bands. We demonstrate that the vertical integral of the cooling rate in the spectral band, convolved with a kernel function associated with the narrow channel, can be related to a weighted sum of the channel and band radiances. The band radiance must be evaluated at a specific zenith angle, which is a result of use of the mean value theorem. With known kernel functions, the combined radiances may be inverted to obtain the cooling rate profile. These results are derived from use of a random model for the transmittance in its strong-and weak-line limits. The results are similar in the two limits leading us to conclude that there are expressions that are approximately valid over the entire range of transmittance. We show by numerical methods that this conclusion is correct and apply the retrieval technique successfully to get the cooling rate profile in the rotational band of water vapor.


Waste Water Water Vapor Cool Rate Water Pollution Kernel Function 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arking, A., Grossman, K., 1972: The influence of line shape and band structure on temperatures in planetary atmospheres.J. Atmos. Sci.,29, 937–949.Google Scholar
  2. Elsasser, W. M., 1942: Heat transfer by infrared radiation in the atmosphere. Harvard Meteorological Studies, No. 6. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 107 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Elsasser, W. M., Culbertson, M. F., 1960: Atmospheric radiation tables.Meteor. Mongr.,4, 1–43.Google Scholar
  4. Goody, R. M., 1952: A statistical model for water vapor absorption.Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,78, 165–169.Google Scholar
  5. King, J. I. F., 1963: Meteorological inferences from satellite radiometry. I.J. Atmos. Sci.,20, 245–250.Google Scholar
  6. Liou, K. N., Ou, S. C., 1981: Parameterization of infrared radiative transfer in cloudy atmospheres.J. Atmos. Sci.,38, 2707–2716.Google Scholar
  7. McClatchey, R. A., Fenn, R. W., Selby, J. E., Volz, F. E., Garing, J. S., 1972: Optical properties of the atmosphere (3rd ed.). AFCRL-72-0497.Google Scholar
  8. Möller, F., Raschke, E., 1964: Evaluation of TIROS III radiation data. NASA CR-112, 114 pp, (available from the Office of Technical Services, Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 20230).Google Scholar
  9. Phillips, D. L., 1962: A technique for the numerical solution of certain integral equations of the first kind.J. Assoc. Comput. Mach.,9, 84–97.Google Scholar
  10. Thomas, G. B., Jr., Finney, R. L., 1984:Calculus and Analystic Geometry (6th edition). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1041 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Twomey, S., 1963: On the numerical solution of Fredholm integral equations of the first kind by the inversion of the linear system produced by quadrature.J. Assoc. Comput. Mach.,10, 97–101.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kuo-Nan Liou
    • 1
  • Yongkang Xue
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MeteorologyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations