Reading and Writing

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 325–337 | Cite as

Phonological recoding as a universal process?

Evidence from beginning readers of Chinese
  • Chieh Fang Hu
  • Hugh W. Catts
Article

Abstract

A phonological confusion task was employed to explore whether or not beginning readers of Chinese activate phonological codes while reading Chinese characters. Twenty first graders and twenty third graders read phonologically similar and dissimilar character strings. Following the presentation of each string, they were required to identify the characters from among a set of recognition items. Three major findings indicated that subjects used phonological codes while reading Chinese characters: (1) Subjects recognized fewer phonologically similar characters than phonologically dissimilar ones; (2) The phonological confusion effect varied with degree of phonological similarity among the characters read. Characters having the same rhyme and same tone (SRST) were recognized less accurately than characters of the same rhyme but different tones (SRDT), which in turn were recognized less accurately than characters of different rhymes and different tones (DRDT); (3) Silent reading and oral reading resulted in similar patterns of phonological confusion, indicating that similar codes were activated during the two reading conditions.

Key words

Beginning readers Chinese writing system Phonological coding Working memory 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aaronson, D. & Ferres, S. (1983). A model for coding lexical categories during reading,Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 9: 700–725.Google Scholar
  2. Allport, D. A. (1979). Word recognition in reading: A tutorial review. In: P. A. Kolers, H. Bouma & M. Wrolstad (eds.),Processing of visible language (pp. 227–257). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  3. Baddeley, A. D. (1979). Working memory and reading. In: P. A. Kolers, H. Bouma & M. Wrolstad (eds.),Processing of visible language (pp. 355–370). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  4. Baddeley, A. D. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  5. Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. T. (1974). Working memory. In: G. H. Bower (eds.),The psychology of learning and motivation, Vol. 18 (pp. 47–89). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  6. Baddeley, A. D. & Lewis, V. J. (1981). Inner active processes in reading: The inner ear, inner voice, and inner eye. In: A. M. Lesgold & C. A. Perfetti (eds.),Interactive processes in reading (pp. 107–129). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Baddeley, A. D., Eldridge, M. & Lewis, V. (1981). The role of subvocalization in reading,Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 33: 439–454.Google Scholar
  8. Baron, J. (1973). Phonemic stage not necessary for reading,Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 25: 241–246.Google Scholar
  9. Besner, D., Davies, J. & Daniels, S. (1981). Reading for meaning: The effects of concurrent articulation,Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 33: 415–437.Google Scholar
  10. Cheng, C. M. & Shih, S. I. (1988). The nature of lexical access in Chinese: Evidence from experiments on visual and phonological priming in lexical judgment. In: I. M. Liu, H. C. Chen & M. J. Chen (eds.),Cognitive aspects of the Chinese language (pp. 1–14). Hong Kong: Asian Research Service.Google Scholar
  11. Coltheart, M. (1978). Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In: G. Underwood (ed.),Strategies for information processing (pp. 151–216). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  12. Coltheart, V., Avons, S. E. & Trollope, J. (1990). Articulatory suppression and phonological codes in reading for meaning,Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 42: 375–399.Google Scholar
  13. Coltheart, V., Laxon, V., Rickard, M. & Elton, C. (1988). Phonological recoding in reading for meaning by adults and children,Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 14: 387–397.Google Scholar
  14. Conrad, R. (1964). Acoustic confusion in immediate memory,British Journal of Psychology 55: 75–84.Google Scholar
  15. Daneman, M. (1987). Reading and working memory., In: J. R. Beech & A. M. Colley (eds.),Cognitive approaches to reading (pp. 57–86). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  16. Daneman, M. & Stainton, M. (1991). Phonological recoding in silent reading,Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 17: 618–632.Google Scholar
  17. Frost, R. & Bentin, S. (1992). Phonological and semantic ambiguity: Evidence from semantic priming at different SOAs,Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 18: 58–68.Google Scholar
  18. Frost, R. & Katz, L. (1989). Orthographic depth and the interaction of visual and auditory processing in word recognition,Memory and Cognition 17: 302–310.Google Scholar
  19. Frost, R., Katz, L. & Bentin, S. (1987). Strategies for visual word recognition and orthographical depth: A multilingual comparison,Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 13: 104–114.Google Scholar
  20. Hanson, V. L. & Fowler, C. A. (1987). Phonological coding in word reading: Evidence from hearing and deaf readers,Memory and Cognition 15: 199–207.Google Scholar
  21. Huey, E. B. (1968).The psychology and pedagogy of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press (Originally published, 1908).Google Scholar
  22. Hung, D. L. & Tzeng, O. J. L. (1981). Orthographic variation and visual information processing,Psychological Bulletin 90: 377–414.Google Scholar
  23. Kirk, R. E. (1968).Experimental design: Procedures for the behavioral sciences. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  24. Kleiman, G. M. (1975). Speech recoding in reading,Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 14: 304–316.Google Scholar
  25. Leong, C. K. (1986). What does accessing a morphemic script tell us about reading and reading disorders in an alphabetic script?,Annals of Dyslexia 36: 82–102.Google Scholar
  26. Lukatela, G. & Turvey, M. T. (1990). Phonemic similarity effects and prelexical phonology,Memory and Cognition 18: 128–152.Google Scholar
  27. McCusker, L. X., Hillinger, M. L. & Bias, R. G. (1981). Phonological recoding and reading,Psychological Bulletin 89: 217–245.Google Scholar
  28. McCutchen, D. & Perfetti, C. A. (1982). The visual tongue-twister effect: Phonological activation in silent reading,Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 21: 679–687.Google Scholar
  29. McCutchen, D., Bell, L. C., France, I. M. & Perfetti, C. A. (1991). Phoneme-specific interference in reading: The visual tongue-twister effect revisited,Reading Research Quarterly 26: 87–103.Google Scholar
  30. Morais, J. (1991). Constraints on the development of phonemic awareness. In: S. A. Brady & D. P. Shankweiler (eds.),Phonological processes in literacy: A tribute to Isabelle Y. Liberman (pp. 5–27). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  31. Morais, J., Gary, L., Alegria, J. & Bertelson, P. (1979). Does awareness of speech as a sequence of phones arise spontaneously?,Cognition 7: 323–331.Google Scholar
  32. Morton, J. & Sasanuma, S. (1984). Lexical access in Japanese. In: L. Henderson (ed.),Orthographies and reading (pp. 25–42). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  33. Paap, K. R., Newsome, S. L., McDonald, J. E. & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1982). An activation-verification model for letter and word recognition: The word-superiority effect,Psychological Review 89: 573–594.Google Scholar
  34. Perfetti, C. A. & Bell, L. C. (1991). Phonemic activation during the first 40 ms of word identification: Evidence from backward masking and priming,Journal of Memory and Language 30: 475–485.Google Scholar
  35. Perfetti, C. A. & Zhang, S. (1991). Phonological processes in reading Chinese characters,Journal of Experimental Psychology 17: 633–643.Google Scholar
  36. Perfetti, C. A., Bell, L. & Delaney, S. (1988). Automatic phonetic activation in silent word reading: Evidence from backward masking,Journal of Memory and Language 27: 59–70.Google Scholar
  37. Rayner, K. & Pollatsek, A. (1989).The psychology of reading. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  38. Read, C., Zhang, Y., Nie, H. & Ding, B. (1986). The ability to manipulate speech sounds depends on knowing alphabetic writing,Cognition 24: 31–44.Google Scholar
  39. Seidenberg, M. (1985). The time course of phonological code activation in two writing systems,Cognition 19: 1–30.Google Scholar
  40. Sheridan, E. M. (1983). Reading disabilities: Can we blame the written language?,Journal of Learning Disabilities 16: 81–86.Google Scholar
  41. Shwedel, A. M. (1983). Must we use phonology to read? What Chinese can tell us,Journal of Reading 26: 707–713.Google Scholar
  42. Slowiaczek, M. L. & Clifton, C. (1980). Subvocalization and reading for meaning,Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 19: 573–582.Google Scholar
  43. Tzeng, O. J. L. & Hung, D. L. (1980). Reading in the nonalphabetic writing system: Some experimental studies. In: J. F. Kavanagh & R. L. Venezky (eds.),Orthography, reading and dyslexia (pp. 211–226). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  44. Tzeng, O. J. L. & Hung, D. L. (1988). Cerebral organization: Clues from scriptal effects on lateralization. In: I. M. Liu, H. C. Chen & M. J. Chen (eds.),Cognitive aspects of the Chinese language (pp. 119–139). Hong Kong: Asian Research Service.Google Scholar
  45. Tzeng, O. J. L. & Wang, W. S. Y. (1983). The first two R's,American Scientist 71: 238–243.Google Scholar
  46. Tzeng, O. J. L., Hung, D. L. & Wang, W. S. Y. (1977). Speech recoding in reading Chinese characters,Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 3: 621–630.Google Scholar
  47. Van Orden, G. C. (1987). A ROWS is a ROSE: Spelling, sound, and reading,Memory and Cognition 15: 181–198.Google Scholar
  48. Van Orden, G. C., Johnston, J. C. & Hale, B. L. (1988). Word identification in reading proceeds from spelling to sound to meaning,Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 14: 371–386.Google Scholar
  49. Waters, G., Caplan, D. & Hildebrandt, N. (1987). Working memory and written sentence comprehension. In: M. Coltheart (ed.),Attention and performance, Vol. XII:The psychology of reading (pp. 531–555). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  50. Yeung, N. C. (1989). Pre-lexical phonological activation in silent reading of Chinese. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  51. Yu, B., Zhang, W., Jing, Q., Peng, R., Zhang, G. & Simon, H. (1985). STM capacity for Chinese and English language materials,Memory and Cognition 13: 202–207.Google Scholar
  52. Zhang, G. & Simon, H. A. (1985). STM capacity for Chinese words and idioms: Chunking and acoustical loop hypotheses,Memory and Cognition 13: 193–201.Google Scholar
  53. Zhou, Y. G. (1978). To what degree are the ‘phonetics’ of present-day Chinese characters still phonetic?,Zhongguo Yuwen 146: 172–177.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chieh Fang Hu
    • 1
  • Hugh W. Catts
    • 1
  1. 1.Dole Human Development CenterUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations