Skip to main content

Developmental skills related to writing and reading acquisition in the intermediate grades

Shared and unique functional systems

Abstract

Multiple measures of the fine motor system, the orthographic system, the phonological system, the working memory system, the verbal intelligence system, the writing system, and the reading system were administered to 300 students in grades 4, 5, and 6. Results showed that the writing system and the reading system share many of the same orthographic, phonological, and working memory sub-processes but thepatterns of concurrent relation between these sub-processes and writing and between these subprocesses and reading differ. These results are consistent with the view that writing and reading draw upon the same as well as unique cognitive systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Baddeley, A. D. (1986).Working memory. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bates, E. (1993). Nature, nurture, and language. Invited address, Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans.

  • Berninger, V. (1992). Intraindividual differences in levels of written language in developing sentence comprehension. Submitted.

  • Berninger, V. (1994a).Reading and Writing Acquisition: A Developmental Neuropsychological Perspective. Dubuque, IA: Brown & Benchmark.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berninger, V. (1994b). Codes, connections, constructive processes, and context: Integrating the Lurian and Vygotskian perspectives. In: E. Assink (ed.),Literacy Acquisition and Social Context (in press).

  • Berninger, V. & Abbott, R. (1992). Multiple orthographic and phonological codes and code connections in reading and spelling single words. American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.

  • Berninger, V. & Fuller, F. (1992). Gender differences in orthographic, verbal and compositional fluency: Implications for assessing writing disabilities in primary grade children,Journal of School Psychology 30: 363–382.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berninger, V., Mizokawa, D. & Bragg, R. (1991). Theory-based diagnosis and remediation of writing disabilities,Journal of School Psychology 29: 57–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berninger, V., Mizokawa, D., Bragg, R., Cartwright, A. & Yates, C. (1993). Intraindividual differences in levels of written language,Reading and Writing Quarterly (in press).

  • Berninger, V. & Rutberg, J. (1992). Relationship of finger function to beginning writing: Application to diagnosis of writing disabilities,Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 34: 155–172.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berninger, V., Thalberg, S., DeBruyn, I. & Smith, R. (1987). Preventing reading difficulties by assessing and remediating phonemic skills,School Psychology Review 16: 554–555.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berninger, V. & Whitaker, D. (1993). Theory-based, branching diagnosis of writing disabilities,School Psychology Review (in press).

  • Berninger, V., Yates, C., Cartwright, A., Rutberg, J., Remy, E. & Abbott, R. (1992). Lower-level developmental skills in beginning writing,Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 4: 257–280.

    Google Scholar 

  • Berninger, V., Yates, C. & Lester, C. (1991). Multiple orthographic codes in acquisition of reading and writing skills,Reading and Writing 3: 115–149.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boning, R. (1973).Specific Skills Series. Baldwin, NY: Barnell Loft, Ltd.

    Google Scholar 

  • Byrne, B. & Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1990). Acquiring the alphabetic principle: A case for teaching recognition of phoneme identity,Journal of Educational Psychology 82: 805–812.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cunningham, A. E. & Stanovich, K. E. (1990). Assessing print exposure and orthographic processing skill in children: A quick measure of reading experience,Journal of Educational Psychology 82: 733–740.

    Google Scholar 

  • Daneman, J. & Carpenter, P. A. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading,Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 19: 450–466.

    Google Scholar 

  • Decker, S. N. & DeFries, J. C. (1981), Cognitive ability profiles in families of reading-disabled children,Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 23: 217–227.

    Google Scholar 

  • DeFries, J. C. (1985). Colorado reading project. In: D. B. Gray & J. F. Kavanaugh (eds.),Biobehavioral Measures of Dyslexia (pp. 107–122). Parkton, MD: York Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehri, L. (1980). The role of orthographic images in learning printed words. In: J. F. Kavanaugh & R. L. Venezky (eds.),Orthography, Reading, and Dyslexia (pp. 155–170). Baltimore: University Park Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ellis, A. (1985). The cognitive neuropsychology of developmental (and acquired) dyslexia: A critical survey,Cognitive Neuropsychology 2: 169–205.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ellis, A. (1987). Review on problems in developing cognitively transmitted cognitive modules,Mind & Language 2: 242–251.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hammill, D. & Larsen, S. (1983).Test of Written Language. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jastak, S. & Wilkinson, G. (1984).Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised. Wilmington, DE: Jastak Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Juel, C., Griffith, P. & Gough, P. (1986). Acquisition of literacy: A longitudinal study of children in first and second grade,Journal of Educational Psychology 78: 243–255.

    Google Scholar 

  • Just, M. & Daneman, J. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory,Psychological Review 99: 122–149.

    Google Scholar 

  • Liberman, I. Y., Shankweiler, D., Liberman, A., Fowler, C & Fischer, F. (1977). Phonetic segmentation and recoding in the beginning reader. In: A. Reber & D. Scarborough (eds.),Toward a Psychology of Reading (pp. 207–225). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Luria, A. R. (1973).The Working Brain. New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ojemann, G. (1991). Cortical organization of language,The Journal of Neuroscience 11: 2281–2287.

    Google Scholar 

  • Olson, R. K., Kliegl, R., Davidson, B. J. & Foltz, G. (1985). Individual and developmental differences in reading disability. In: G. E. MacKinnon & T. G. Waller (eds.),Reading Research: Advances in Theory and Practice (Vol. 4, pp. 1–64). New York: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Olson, R. K., Wise, B., Conners, F., Rack, J. & Fulker, D. (1989). Specific deficits in component reading and language skills: Genetic and environmental influences,Journal of Learning Disabilities 22: 339–348.

    Google Scholar 

  • Perfetti, C. & Hogaboam, T. (1975). The relationship between single word decoding and reading comprehension skill,Journal of Educational Psychology 67: 461–469.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shanahan, T. (1984). Nature of the reading-writing relation: An exploratory multivariate analysis,Journal of Educational Psychology 76: 466–477.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shanahan, T. & Lomax, D. (1986). An analysis and comparison of theoretical models of the reading-writing relationship,Journal of Educational Psychology 78: 116–123.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siegel, L. (1989). IQ is irrelevant to the definition of learning disabilities,Journal of Learning Disabilities 22: 469–486.

    Google Scholar 

  • Siegel, L. (1992). An evaluation of the discrepancy definition of dyslexia,Journal of Learning Disabilities 25: 618–629.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stanovich, K., Cunningham, A. & Feeman, D. (1984). Intelligence, cognitive skills, and early reading progress,Reading Research Quarterly 19: 278–303.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stanovich, K. E. & West, R. F. (1989). Exposure to print and orthographic processing,Reading Research Quarterly 24: 402–433.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F. & Cunningham, A. E. (1991). Beyond phonological processes: Print-exposure and orthographic processing. In: S. Brady & D. Shankweiler (eds.),Phonological Processes in Literary (pp. 219–235). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L. (1992).Mental Processing Potential Test (MPPT): A Manual. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed (in preparation).

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L. (1993a). The generality and modifiability of working memory among skilled and less-skilled readers,Journal of Educational Psychology 84: 473–488.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L. (1993b). Individual differences in working memory: A model testing and subtype analysis of learning disabled and skilled readers,Intelligence 17: 285–332.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L. & Berninger, V. (1993). Working memory as a source of individual differences in children's writing. In: E. Butterfield (ed.),Children's Writing: Toward a Process Theory of Development of Skilled Writing. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press (in press).

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L., Cochran, K. & Ewars, C. (1989). Working memory and reading disabilities,Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 17: 745–766.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanson, H. L., Cochran, K. & Ewars, C. (1990). Can learning disabilities be determined from working memory performance?,Journal of Learning Disabilities 23: 59–67.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vellutino, F. & Scanlon, D. (1987). Phonological coding, phonological awareness, and reading ability: Evidence from a longitudinal and experimental study,Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 33: 321–363.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vellutino, F. R., Scanlon, D. M., Small, S. G. & Tanzman, M. S. (1991). The linguistic basis of reading ability: Converting written to oral language,Text 11: 99–133.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vellutino, F., Scanlon, D. & Tanzman, M. (1991). Bridging the gap between cognitive and neuropsychological conceptualizations of reading disability,Learning and Individual Differences 3: 181–203.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wechsler, D. (1974).Manual for the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whitaker, D., Berninger, V., Johnston, J. & Swanson, H. L. (1993). Developmental and individual differences in planning, translating, and revising in intermediate grade writers,Learning and Individual Differences (in press).

  • Wolf, M. (1991). ‘Word-wraiths’: The unique contribution of the naming system to reading prediction and intervention in developmental dyslexia. Paper presented at the biennial meeting at the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, WA.

  • Wolff, P. H., Gunnoe, C. & Cohen, C. (1983). Associated movements as a measure of developmental age,Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 25: 417–429.

    Google Scholar 

  • Woodcock, R. (1987).Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised. Circle Prines, MN: American Guidance Service.

    Google Scholar 

  • Woodcock, R. W. & Johnson, M. B. (1989, 1990).The Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Revised. Allen, TX: DLM Teaching Resources.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Berninger, V.W., Cartwright, A.C., Yates, C.M. et al. Developmental skills related to writing and reading acquisition in the intermediate grades. Read Writ 6, 161–196 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01026911

Download citation

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01026911

Key words

  • Orthography
  • Phonology
  • Reading acquisition
  • Reading disabilities
  • Working memory
  • Writing acquisition
  • Writing disabilities