Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 47–57 | Cite as

Specificity of male response to multicomponent pheromones in noctuid mothsTrichoplusia ni andPseudoplusia includens

  • C. E. LinnJr.
  • A. Hammond
  • J. Du
  • W. L. Roelofs
Article

Abstract

The response of male cabbage looper (CL) and soybean iooper (SBL) moths was observed in the flight tunnel and measured in field tests to the six-component CL pheromone, the five-component SBL pheromone, and toZ7–12: OAc, the major component common to each pheromone. In both the flight tunnel and the field, male CL exhibited significantly greater levels of response to their six-component blend than toZ7–12: OAc alone. A low level of cross-attraction of male CL to the SBL pheromone was observed in both the flight tunnel and the field, but it was quantitatively and qualitatively similar to their response toZ7–12: OAc alone. Thus the minor components of the SBL blend did not appear to disrupt the flight behavior of male CL. With respect to SBL, in the flight tunnel males also exhibited a greater level of response to the five-component blend compared toZ7–12: OAc, but in the field their response was not significantly different to either treatment. There was also a low level of cross-attraction of male SBL to the CL blend, but this appeared to involve a significant arrestment effect on the upwind flight of males, as well as a difference in male sensitivity to the blend of components compared withZ7–12: OAc alone. The observed arrestment effect may have been due to male perception of one or more minor components of the CL pheromone. The results show that the multicomponent pheromones of these species function effectively as specific mating signals and that discrimination of odor quality by male moths can occur as the result of minor components affecting male sensitivity or their upwind flight response to the pheromone.

Key words

Sex pheromone Lepidoptera Noctuidae Pseudoplusia includens Trichoplusia ni multicomponent pheromone blends sustained-flight tunnel behavioral thresholds 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Berger, R.S., 1966, Isolation, identification, and synthesis of the sex attractant of the cabbage looper,Trichoplusia ni.Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 59:767–711.Google Scholar
  2. Biostad, L.B., Linn, C.E., Du, J.W., andRoelofs, W.L. 1984. Identification of new sex pheromone components inTrichoplusia ni, predicted from biosynthetic precursors.J. Chem. Ecol. 10:1309–1323.Google Scholar
  3. Cardé, R.T., andBaker, T.C. 1984. Sexual communication with pheromones, pp. 355–383,in W.J. Bell and R.T. Cardé (eds.). Chemical Ecology of Insects. Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  4. Eichlin, T.D. 1975. Guide to the adult and larval Plusiinae of California.Occas. Pap. Entomol.,State Calif. Dep. Food Agric. No. 21, 73 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Grant, A.J.,O'connell, R.J., andHammond, A.M. 1987. A comparative study of the neurophysiological response characteristics of olfactory receptor neurons in two species of noctuid moths.Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. in press.Google Scholar
  6. Leppla, N.C. 1983. Chemically mediated reproductive isolation between cabbage looper and soybean looper moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).Environ. Entomol. 12:1760–1765.Google Scholar
  7. Leppla, N.C., Hamilton, E.W., Guy, R.H., andLee, F.L. 1979. Circadian rhythms of locomotion in six noctuid moth species.Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 72:209–215.Google Scholar
  8. Linn, C.E., Jr., Bjostad, L.B., Du, J.W., andRoelofs, W.L. 1984. Redundancy in a chemical signal: Behavioral responses of maleTrichoplusia ni to a six-component sex pheromone blend.J. Chem. Ecol. 10:1635–1658.Google Scholar
  9. Linn, C.E., Jr., Campbell, M.G., andRoelofs, W.L. 1986. Male moth sensitivity to multicomponent pheromones: Critical role of female-released blend in determining the functional role of components and the active space of the pheromone.J. Chem. Ecol. 12:659–668.Google Scholar
  10. Linn, C.E., Jr., Du, J.W., Hammond, A., andRoelofs, W.L. 1987. Identification of unique pheromone components for the soybean looper mothPseudoplusia includens.J. Chem. Ecol. 13:1351–1360.Google Scholar
  11. Miller, J.R., andRoelofs, W.L. 1978. Sustained-flight tunnel for measuring insect responses to wind borne sex pheromones.J. Chem. Ecol. 4:142–149.Google Scholar
  12. Mitchell, E.R. 1972. Female cabbage looper inhibit attraction of male soybean looper.Environ. Entomol. 1:444–446.Google Scholar
  13. Mitchell, E.R. 1973. Nocturnal activity of adults of three species of loopers based on collections in pheromone traps.Environ. Entomol. 2:1078–1080.Google Scholar
  14. Priesner, E. 1980. Sensory encoding of pheromone signals and related stimuli in moths, pp. 359–366,in Insect Neurobiology and Insecticide Action (Neurotox 79), Society of Chemical Industry, London.Google Scholar
  15. Priesner, E. 1985. Inhibitors of sexual attraction in the mothAgrotis exclaimationis.Z. Naturforsch. 40:943–945.Google Scholar
  16. Roelofs, W.L., andBrown, R.L. 1982. Pheromones and evolutionary relationships of Tortricidae.Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 13:395–422.Google Scholar
  17. Ryan, J.A. 1960. Significance tests for multiple comparison of proportions, variances, and other statistics.Psychol. Bull. 57:318–328.Google Scholar
  18. Shorey, H.H., andHale, R.H. 1965. Mass-rearing of the larvae of nine noctuid species on a simple artificial medium.J. Econ. Entomol. 58:522–524.Google Scholar
  19. Steck, W.F., Underhill, E.W., Chisholm, M.D., andGerber, H.S. 1979. Sex attractant for male alfalfa looper moths,Autographa californica.Environ. Entomol. 8:373–375.Google Scholar
  20. Steel, R.G.D., andTorrie, J.H. 1960. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. McGraw-Hill, New York, 481 pp.Google Scholar
  21. Tamaki, Y. 1985. Sex Pheromones, pp. 145–193,in G.A. Kerkut and L.I. Gilbert (eds.) Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology. Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Tumlinson, J.H., Mitchell, E.R., Browner, S.M., andLindquist, D.A. 1972. A sex pheromone for the soybean looper.Environ. Entomol. 1:466–468.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. E. LinnJr.
    • 1
  • A. Hammond
    • 2
  • J. Du
    • 3
  • W. L. Roelofs
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyNew York State Agricultural Experiment StationGeneva
  2. 2.Depanment of EntomologyLouisiana State UniversityBaton Rouge
  3. 3.Shanghai Institute of EntomologyAcademica SinicaShanghaiP.R.C.

Personalised recommendations