Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 12, Issue 8, pp 1745–1754 | Cite as

Male-stimulated female maturation inSchistosoma: A review

  • Irene Popiel


InSchistosoma mansoni and other schistosome species, pairing of the female with a male partner is necessary for the completion of reproductive morphogenesis and growth. Permanent contact with a male is also necessary for the maintenance of reproductivity in the sexually mature female. This phenomenon appears to be unique within the animal kingdom. The mechanism of male-stimulated female reproductive development in schistosomes remains unknown however. In this paper, the theories for the nature of the process are reviewed briefly, recent findings are added, and the biological and technical problems associated with its study are highlighted.

Key words

Schistosoma mansoni male-derived cholesterol vitellogenesis female maturation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armstrong, J.C. 1965. Mating behavior and development of schistosomes in the mouse.J. Parasitol. 51:605–616.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, K.H., andAtkinson, B.G. 1980. Biochemical basis for the continuous copulation of femaleSchistosoma mansoni.Nature 283:478–479.Google Scholar
  3. Basch, P.F. 1981. Cultivation ofSchistosoma mansoni in vitro. Establishment of cultures from cercariae and development until pairing.J. Parasitol. 67:179–185.Google Scholar
  4. Clough, E.R. 1981. Morphology of reproductive organs and oogenesis in bisexual and unisexual transplants of matureSchistosoma females.J. Parasitol. 6:349–354.Google Scholar
  5. Cornford, E.M., andHuot, M.E. 1981. Glucose transfer from male to female schistosomes.Science 213:1169–1171.Google Scholar
  6. Erasmus, D.A. 1973. A comparative study of the reproductive system of mature, immature and “unisexual” femaleSchistosoma mansoni.Parasitology 67:165–183.Google Scholar
  7. Fried, B., Shenko, F.J., andEveland, L.K. 1983. Densitometric thin-layer chromatographic analysis of cholesterol inSchistosoma mansoni (Trematoda) adults and their excretory-secretory products.J. Chem. Ecol. 9:1483–1489.Google Scholar
  8. Michaels, R.M. 1969. Mating ofSchistosoma mansoni in vitro.Exp. Parasitol. 25:58–71.Google Scholar
  9. Nirde, P.L., Torpier, G., De Reggi, M.L., andCapron, A. 1983. Ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone: New hormones for the human parasiteSchistosoma mansoni.FEBS Lett. 151:223–227.Google Scholar
  10. Popiel, I. 1986. The reproductive biology of schistosomes.Parasitol. Today 2:10–15.Google Scholar
  11. Popiel, I., andBasch, P.F. 1984a. Putative polypeptide transfer from male to femaleSchistosoma mansoni.Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 11:179–188.Google Scholar
  12. Popiel, I., andBasch, P.F. 1984b. Reproductive development of femaleSchistosoma mansoni (Digenea: Schistosomatidae) following bisexual pairing of worms and worm segments.J. Exp. Zool. 232:141–150.Google Scholar
  13. Popiel, I., andBasch, P.F. 1986.Schistosoma mansoni: Cholesterol exchange in adult worm pairs.Exp. Parasitol. 61, 343–347.Google Scholar
  14. Popiel, I., Erasmus, D.A., andCioli, D. 1981.Schistosoma mansoni: An ultrastructural study of the vitelline gland.Proc. E.M. Soc. S. Afr. 11:83–84.Google Scholar
  15. Popiel, I., Cioli, D., andErasmus, D.A. 1984. The morphology and reproductive status of femaleSchistosoma mansoni following separation from male worms.Int. J. Parasitol. 14:183–190.Google Scholar
  16. Shaw, J.R. 1977.Schistosoma mansoni: Pairing in vitro and development of females from single sex infections.Exp. Parasitol. 41:54–65.Google Scholar
  17. Shaw, J.R., andErasmus, D.A. 1981.Schistosoma mansoni: An examination of the reproductive status of females from single sex infections.Parasitology 82:121–124.Google Scholar
  18. Shaw, J.R., Marshall, I., andErasmus, D.A. 1977.Schistosoma mansoni: In vitro stimulation of vitelline cell development by extracts of male worms.Exp. Parasitol. 42:14–20.Google Scholar
  19. Short, R.B. 1948. Intergeneric crosses among schistosomes (Trematoda: Schistosomatidae).J. Parasitol. 34:30.Google Scholar
  20. Silk, M.H., andSpence, I.M. 1969. Ultrastructural studies of the blood fluke-Schistosoma mansoni III. The nerve tissue and sensory structures.S. Afr. J. Med. Sci. 34:93–104.Google Scholar
  21. Standen, O.D. 1953. The relationship of sex inSchistosoma mansoni to migration within the hepatic portal system of experimentally infected mice.Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 47:139–145.Google Scholar
  22. Taylor, M.G. 1970. Hybridization experiments on five species of African schistosomes.J. Helminthol. 44:273–287.Google Scholar
  23. Taylor, M.G., Amin, M.B.A., andNelson, G.S. 1969. “Parthenogenesis” inSchistosoma mattheei.J. Helminthol. 43:197–206.Google Scholar
  24. Vogel, H. 1941. Über den Einfluss des Geschlechtspartners auf Wachstum und Entwicklung beiBilharzia mansoni und bei Kreuzpaarungen zwischen verschiedenenBilharzia-Arten.Z. Bakt. Parasitenkd. Infect. 148:78–96.Google Scholar
  25. Vogel, H. 1942. Über die Nachkommenschaft aus Kreuzpaarungen zwischenBilharzia mansoni undB. japonica.Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenkd. Infektionskr. 149:319–333.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irene Popiel
    • 1
  1. 1.BiosisPalo Alto

Personalised recommendations