Isolation and identification of oviposition deterrents to cabbage butterfly,Pieris rapae, fromErysimum cheiranthoides
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Avoidance of some crucifer species by the crucifer specialist,Pieris rapae, has been attributed to the presence of oviposition deterrents in these plants. Studies on one such unacceptable plant,Erysimum cheiranthoides, have resulted in the isolation ofn-butanol-soluble deterrents from the alcoholic extract of foliage. The active fraction contained three cardiac glycosides, which were isolated by reversed-phase HPLC and by open column chromatography on silica gel. Chemical and spectral evidence (UV, [1H]NMR, and FAB-MS) led to the characterization of these compounds as erysimoside (1), erychroside (2), and erycordin (3). Erysimoside and erychroside were strongly deterrent toPieris rapae, but erycordin was inactive. Both active compounds have the same aglycone, strophanthidin (5) and the inner sugar in both cases is a 2,6-dideoxy hexose to which the outer sugar is attached at position C-4. These structural features, which are absent in the inactive compound (3), may represent specific requirements for oviposition deterrent activity.
Key wordsLepidoptera Pieridae Pieris rapae cabbage butterfly Erysimum cheiranthoides Cruciferae oviposition deterrents cardenolides erysimoside erychroside erycordin
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