Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 11, Issue 8, pp 1129–1146 | Cite as

Estimating maximum horizontal area of pheromone plumes

  • B. H. Stanley
  • H. E. Hummel
  • W. G. Ruesink


Graphs and simple Gaussian plume equations are presented for estimating the maximum horizontal area within a pheromone plume. In its simplest form the area,A R , for a given scaling factor,R = Q/(Ku), isA R = AIRβ, whereQ is the release rate,K is a specified concentration threshold,u is the wind velocity, and β is an atmospheric stability index. Estimates ofA I and β are given for several atmospheric stability typing schemes applicable to field and forest habitats.

Key words

Atmospheric diffusion chemical communication Gaussian plume model isopleth area pheromone plume plume area 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aylor, D.E., Parlange, J., andGranett, J., 1976. Turbulent dispersion of disparlure in the forest and male gypsy moth responses.Environ. Entomol. 5:1026–1032.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, T.C., andKuenen, L.P.S. 1982. Pheromone location in flying moths. A supplementary non-anemotactic mechanism.Science 216:424–427.Google Scholar
  3. Bossert, W.H., andWilson, E.O., 1963. The analysis of olfactory communication among animals.J. Theor. Biol. 5:443–469.Google Scholar
  4. Briggs, G.A. 1973. Diffusion estimation for small emissions, ATDL contribution file no. 79, Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  5. Cramer, H.E., Record, F.A., andVaughan, H.C. 1958. The study of the diffusion of gases or aerosols in the lower atmosphere. Report AFCRC-TR-58-239, Department of Meterology, M.I.T., Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  6. David, C.T., Kennedy, J.S., Ludlow, A.R., Perry, J.N., andWall, C. 1982. A reappraisal of insect flight towards a distant point source of windborne odor.J. Chem. Ecol. 8:1207–1215.Google Scholar
  7. Eimutis, E.C., andKonicek, M.G. 1972. Derivations of continuous functions for the lateral and vertical atmospheric dispersion coefficients.Atmos. Environ. 6:859–863.Google Scholar
  8. Elkinton, J.S., andCardé, R.T. 1984. Odor dispersion, pp. 73–91,in W.J. Bell and R.T. Cardé (eds). Chemical Ecology of Insects. Chapman and Hall, London. 524 pp.Google Scholar
  9. Elkinton, J.S., Cardé, R.T., andMason, C.J. 1984. Evaluation of time-average dispersion models for estimating pheromone concentration in a deciduous forest.J. Chem. Ecol. 7:1081–1108.Google Scholar
  10. Elliot, W.P. 1959. The areas within concentration isopleths downwind of continuous point source.Int. J. Air Pollut. 2:115–126.Google Scholar
  11. Elliot, W.P., andNickola, P.W. 1961. The estimation of areas within isopleths of dosage downwind of a point source.Am. Ind. Hyg. J. 22:238–244.Google Scholar
  12. Fares, Y., Sharpe, P.J.H., andMagnuson, C.E. 1980. Pheromone dispersion in forests.J. Theor. Biol. 84:335–359.Google Scholar
  13. Farkas, S.R. andShorey, H.H. 1974. Mechanisms of orientation to a distant pheromone source, pp. 81–95,in M.D. Birch (ed). Pheromones. American Elsevier, New York. 495 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Geiszler, D.R., Gallucci, V.F., andGara, R.I. 1980. Modeling the dynamics of mountain pine beetle aggregation in a lodgepole pine stand.Oecologia 46:244–253.Google Scholar
  15. Gifford, F.A., Jr. 1961. Use of routine meterological observations for estimating atmospheric dispersion.Nucl. Saf. 2:47–57.Google Scholar
  16. Gifford, F.A., Jr. 1976. Turbulent diffusion-typing schemes: A review.Nucl. Saf. 17:68–86.Google Scholar
  17. Hanna, S.R., Briggs, G.A., andHosker, R.P., Jr. 1982. Handbook on Atmospheric Diffusion. DOE/TICK-11223. National Technical Information Service, U.S. Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia. 102 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Hartstack, A.W., Witz, J.A., Hollingsworth, J.P., andBull, D.L. 1976. SPERM—a sex pheromone emission and response model.Trans. ASAE 19:1170–1174, 1180.Google Scholar
  19. Hilsmeier, W.F. andGifford, F.A., Jr. 1962. Graphs for estimating atmospheric dispersion. USAEC Report ORO-545, Weather Bureau, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.Google Scholar
  20. McClendon, R.W., Mitchell, E.B., Jones, J.W., Mckinion, J.M., andHardee, D.D. 1976. Computer simulation of pheromone trapping systems as applied to boll weevil population suppression: A theoretical example.Environ. Entomol. 5:799–806.Google Scholar
  21. Nakamura, K., andKawasaki, K. 1977. The active space of theSpodoptera litura (F.) sex pheromone and the component determining this space.Appl. Entomol. Zool. 12:162–177.Google Scholar
  22. Nishiwaka, Y. 1959. On the method of estimation of the population dose, population, and surface area covered by the diffusion of radioactive clouds.J. Atomic Energy Soc., Jn. 1:1–23 (translated as USAEC Report AEC-tr-4463).Google Scholar
  23. Pasquill, F. 1961. The estimation of the dispersion of windborne material.Meterol. Mag. 90:33–49.Google Scholar
  24. Shapas, T.J., andBurkholder, W.E. 1978. Patterns of sex pheromone release from adult females, and effects of air velocity and pheromone release rates on theoretical communication distances inTrogoderma glabrum.J. Chem. Ecol. 4:395–408.Google Scholar
  25. Slade, D.H. (ed). 1968. Meterology and Atomic Energy 1968. TID-24190. USAEDC, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 445 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Tadmor, J. andGur, Y. 1969. Analytical expression for this vertical and lateral dispersion coefficients in atmospheric diffusion.Atmos. Environ. 3:688–689.Google Scholar
  27. Wall, C., Sturgeon, D.M., Greenway, A.R., andPerry, J.N. 1981. Contamination of vegetation with synthetic sex-attractant released from traps for the pea moth,Cydia nigricana.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 30:111–115.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. H. Stanley
    • 1
  • H. E. Hummel
    • 1
  • W. G. Ruesink
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbana
  2. 2.Illinois Natural History SurveyChampaign
  3. 3.Illinois Agricultural Experiment StationUrbana

Personalised recommendations