Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 837–850 | Cite as

Activity of volatile compounds in glandular trichomes ofLycopersicon species against two insect herbivores

  • Sarah Y. H. Lin
  • John T. Trumble
  • Junji Kumamoto


Several major chemicals in the glandular heads of type VI trichomes ofLycopersicon species were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Two normal odd-chained ketones, 2-undecanone (47 ng) and 2-tridecanone (146 ng), and one unknown sesquiterpene (5 ng), comprised approximately 95% of the contents of a gland ofL.hirsutum f.glabratum Mull. In a closely related plant,L.hirsutum Humb. & Bonpl. (LA 361), two unknown insecticidal sesquiterpenes accounted for 6% of the gland contents. Additionally, small amounts of one unknown monoterpene and another unknown sesquiterpene were found in type VI glands of a commercial tomato variety,L.esculentum Mill. Bioassays comparing the gland exudate (by direct contact) and isooctane extracts of glands to neonate larvae ofKeiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) andSpodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) indicated that: (1) 2-tridecanone and 2-undecanone were the major insecticidal compounds inL.hirsutum f.glabratum, (2) the two unknown sesquiterpenes inL.hirsutum were acutely toxic to both species, and (3) gland contents in the commercial tomato variety provided only a physical barrier toK.lycopersicella, and were not detrimental toS.exigua. In topical bioassay trials, synthetic mixtures of 2-tridecanone and 2-undecanone (3 ∶1) demonstrated potentiation. Concentrations of these chemicals decreased as trichomes aged. Quantities of insecticidal chemicals and density of type VI trichomes varied with plant age and location within plants.

Key words

Lycopersicon Keiferia lycopersicella Spodoptera exigua Lepidoptera Gelechiidae Noctuidae leaf trichomes 2-tridecanone 2-undecanone terpenoids toxicity 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Y. H. Lin
    • 1
  • John T. Trumble
    • 1
  • Junji Kumamoto
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiverside
  2. 2.Department of Botany and Plant SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaRiverside

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