Advertisement

Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 837–850 | Cite as

Activity of volatile compounds in glandular trichomes ofLycopersicon species against two insect herbivores

  • Sarah Y. H. Lin
  • John T. Trumble
  • Junji Kumamoto
Article

Abstract

Several major chemicals in the glandular heads of type VI trichomes ofLycopersicon species were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Two normal odd-chained ketones, 2-undecanone (47 ng) and 2-tridecanone (146 ng), and one unknown sesquiterpene (5 ng), comprised approximately 95% of the contents of a gland ofL.hirsutum f.glabratum Mull. In a closely related plant,L.hirsutum Humb. & Bonpl. (LA 361), two unknown insecticidal sesquiterpenes accounted for 6% of the gland contents. Additionally, small amounts of one unknown monoterpene and another unknown sesquiterpene were found in type VI glands of a commercial tomato variety,L.esculentum Mill. Bioassays comparing the gland exudate (by direct contact) and isooctane extracts of glands to neonate larvae ofKeiferia lycopersicella (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) andSpodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) indicated that: (1) 2-tridecanone and 2-undecanone were the major insecticidal compounds inL.hirsutum f.glabratum, (2) the two unknown sesquiterpenes inL.hirsutum were acutely toxic to both species, and (3) gland contents in the commercial tomato variety provided only a physical barrier toK.lycopersicella, and were not detrimental toS.exigua. In topical bioassay trials, synthetic mixtures of 2-tridecanone and 2-undecanone (3 ∶1) demonstrated potentiation. Concentrations of these chemicals decreased as trichomes aged. Quantities of insecticidal chemicals and density of type VI trichomes varied with plant age and location within plants.

Key words

Lycopersicon Keiferia lycopersicella Spodoptera exigua Lepidoptera Gelechiidae Noctuidae leaf trichomes 2-tridecanone 2-undecanone terpenoids toxicity 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott, W.S. 1925. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide.J. Econ. Entomol. 18:265–267.Google Scholar
  2. Aina, O.J., Rodriguez, J.G., andKnavel, D.E. 1972. Characterizing resistance toTetranychus urticae in tomato.J. Econ. Entomol. 65:641–645.Google Scholar
  3. Beckman, C.H., Mueller, W.C., andMcHardy, W.E. 1972. The localization of stored phenols in plant hairs.Physiol. Plant Pathol. 2:69–74.Google Scholar
  4. Buckingham, J. (ed.). 1982. Dictionary of Organic Compounds, 5th ed. Chapman and Hall, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Croteau, R.,andLoomis, W.D. 1972. Biosynthesis of mono- and sesquiterpenes in peppermint from mevalonate-2-14C.Phytochemistry 11:1055–1066.Google Scholar
  6. Dean, J.A. (ed.). 1979. Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 12th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Dimock, M.B., andKennedy, G.G. 1983. The role of glandular trichomes in the resistance ofLycopersicon hirsutum f.glabratum toHeliothis zea.Entomol. Exp. Appl. 33:263–268.Google Scholar
  8. Dimock, M.B., Kennedy, G.G., andWilliams, W.G. 1982. Toxicity studies of analogs of 2-tridecanone, a naturally occurring toxicant from a wild tomato.J. Chem. Ecol. 8:837–842.Google Scholar
  9. Duffey, S.S, andIsman, M.B. 1981. Inhibition of insect larval growth by phenolics in glandular trichomes of tomato leaves.Experientia 37:574–576.Google Scholar
  10. Fery, R.L., andKennedy, G.G. 1983. Inheritance of a factor inLycopersicon hirsutum conditioning resistance to the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexto).Hortic. Sci. 18:169 (abstract).Google Scholar
  11. Fery, R.L., Kennedy, G.G., andSorenson, C.F. 1984. Genetic analyses of 2-tridecanone concentration and resistance to the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexto) and the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) inLycopersicon species.Hortic. Sci. 19:562 (abstract).Google Scholar
  12. Finney, D.J. 1971. Quantal responses to mixtures, pp. 230–282,in D.J. Finney (ed.)Probit Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  13. Helwig, J.T., andCouncil, K.A. (eds.). 1979. SAS User's Guide. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  14. Kelsey, R.G., Reynolds, G.W., andRodriguez, E. 1984. The chemistry of biologically active constituents secreted and stored in plant glandular trichomes. pp. 187–244,in E. Rodriguez, P.L. Healey, and I. Meta (eds.). Biology and Chemistry of Plant Trichomes. Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Kennedy, G.G., andDimock, M.B. 1983. 2-Tridecanone: A natural toxicant in a wild tomato responsible for insect resistance, pp. 123–128,in J. Miyamato and P.C. Kearney (eds.). Pesticide Chemistry: Human Welfare and the Environment, Vol. 2. Pergamon Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  16. Kennedy, G.G., andHenderson, W.R. 1978. A laboratory assay for resistance to the tobacco hornworm inLycopersicon andSolanum spp.J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 103:334–336.Google Scholar
  17. Kennedy, G.G., andSorenson, C.F. 1985. Role of glandular trichomes in the resistance ofLycopersicon hirsutum f.glabratum to Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).J. Econ. Entomol. 78:547–551.Google Scholar
  18. Langenheim, J.H., Osmond, C.B., Brooks, A., andFerrar, P.J. 1984. Photosynthetic responses to light in seedlings of selected Amazonian and Australian rainforest tree species.Oecologia (Berlin) 63:215–224.Google Scholar
  19. Lin, S.Y.H., andTrumble, J.T. 1985. Influence of temperature and tomato maturity on development and survival ofKeiferia lycopersicella (Lepidoptere: Gelechiidae).Environ. Entomol. 14:855–858.Google Scholar
  20. Lin, S.Y.H., andTrumble, J.T. 1986. Resistance in wild tomatoes to larvae of a specialist herbivore,Keiferia lycopersicella. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 41:53–60.Google Scholar
  21. Luckwill, L.C. 1943. The genusLycopersicon: An historical, biological, and toxonomic survey of the wild and cultivated tomatoes. Aberdeen University Studies No. 120, Aberdeen University Press, Aberdeen, Scotland.Google Scholar
  22. Matkin, O.A., andChandler, P.A. 1957. The U.C.-type soil mixes, pp. 68–85,in K.F. Baker (ed.). The U.C. System for Producing Healthy Container Grown Plants. California Experiment Station Manual 23, University of California, Division of Agricultural Science. Berkeley.Google Scholar
  23. Patana, R. 1969. Rearing cotton insects in the laboratory. U.S. Department of Agriculture Product Research Report 108:1–6.Google Scholar
  24. Rodriguez, J.R., Knavel, D.E., andAina, O.J. 1972. Studies in the resistance of tomatoes to mites.J. Econ. Entomol. 65:50–53.Google Scholar
  25. Schuster, D.J. 1977. Effects of tomato cultivars on insect damage and chemical control.Fla. Entomol. 60:227–232.Google Scholar
  26. Schwartz, R.F., andSnyder, J.C. 1983. Characterization of resistance to tobacco hornworn inLycopersicon leaflets.Hortic. Sci. 18:170 (abstract).Google Scholar
  27. Silverstein, R.M., Bassler, G.C., andMorrill, T.C. 1974. Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds. John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Snyder, J.C., andCarter, C.D. 1984. Leaf trichomes and resistance ofLycopersicon hirsutum andL. esculentum to spider mites (Tetranychus urticae).J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 109:837–843.Google Scholar
  29. Soost, R.K., Scora, R.W., andSims, J.J. 1968. Contribution to the chromatographic analysis of leaf oils in the genusLycopersicon.J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 92:568–571.Google Scholar
  30. Turner, J.C., Hemphill, J.K., andMahlberg, P.G. 1980. Trichomes and cannabinoid content of developing leaves and bracts ofCannabis sativa L (Cannabaceae).Am. J. Bot. 67:1397–1406.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Y. H. Lin
    • 1
  • John T. Trumble
    • 1
  • Junji Kumamoto
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of CaliforniaRiverside
  2. 2.Department of Botany and Plant SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaRiverside

Personalised recommendations