Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing

, Volume 9, Supplement 1, pp 29S–54S | Cite as

Preparation of inorganic materials, surface treatment, and etching in low pressure plasmas: Present status and future trends

  • S. Vepřek
Article

Abstract

The present status and future trends in the chemistry of nonisothermal plasmas of glow and dielectric barrier discharges are summarized. Particular attention is devoted to the surface treatment, plasma etching, and to the plasma-induced and-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Several open problems which deserve exploratory research are addressed.

Key Words

Plasma CVD plasma etching surface treatment nitriding ion implantation 

References

  1. 1.(a)
    G. Glocker and S. C. Lind,The Electrochemistry of Gases and Other Dielectric, J. Wiley, New York (1939);Google Scholar
  2. 2.(b)
    F. K. McTaggart,Plasma Chemistry in Electrical Discharges, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1967);Google Scholar
  3. 2.(c)
    J. R. Hollahan and A. T. Bell, eds.,Techniques and Applications of Plasma Chemistry, J. Wiley, New York (1974);Google Scholar
  4. 2.(d)
    A. v. Engel,Electric Plasmas, Their Nature and Uses, Taylor and Francis, London (1983).Google Scholar
  5. 2.
    S. Vepřek, inTopic in Current Chemistry, Vol.56, F. L. Boschke, ed., Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1975).Google Scholar
  6. 3.
    S. Vepřek,Pure Appl. Chem. 54, 1197 (1982).Google Scholar
  7. 4.
    B. Eliasson, M. Hirth, and U. Kogelschatz,J. Phys. D: Appl. 20, 1421 (1987).Google Scholar
  8. 5.
    B. Eliasson and U. Kogelschatz,J. Chim. Phys. 83, 279 (1986).Google Scholar
  9. 6.
    G. A. Volkova, N. N. Kirillova, E. N. Pavlovskaya, and A. V. Yakovleva,Zh. Prikl. Spektroskopii 41, 691 (1983).Google Scholar
  10. 7.
    X. Xu,Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Gas Discharges and Their Applications, Oxford, 1985, p. 580.Google Scholar
  11. 8.
    B. Eliasson and U. Kogelschatz, Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, October 1987.Google Scholar
  12. 9.
    U. Kogelschatz and B. Eliasson, Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker, Fachgruppe Photochemie, 10. Vortragstagung, Würzburg (F.R.G.), November 1987.Google Scholar
  13. 10.
    H. Winters, inPlasma Chemistry, Vol. III, S. Vepřek and M. Venugopalan, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1980).Google Scholar
  14. 11.
    H. Winters, inProceedings of the International Summer School on Plasma Chemistry, S. Vepřek, ed., Atami, Japan, August 1987.Google Scholar
  15. 12.
    J. W. Coburn and E. Kay,J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4965 (1972).Google Scholar
  16. 13.
    J. W. Coburn and H. Winters,Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 13, 91 (1983).Google Scholar
  17. 14.
    K. Köhler, J. W. Coburn, D. E. Horne, E. Kay, and J. H. Keller,J. Appl. Phys. 57, 59 (1985).Google Scholar
  18. 15.
    K. Köhler, D. E. Horne, and J. W. Coburn,J. Appl. Phys. 58, 3350 (1985).Google Scholar
  19. 16.
    R. H. Bruce,J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7064 (1981).Google Scholar
  20. 17.
    V. M. Donnelly, D. L. Flamm, and R. H. Bruce,J. Appl. Phys. 58, 2135 (1985).Google Scholar
  21. 18.
    R. Gouscho and M. L. Mandich,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A3, 617 (1985).Google Scholar
  22. 19.
    W. A. P. Claassen, W. G. J. N. Valkenburg, M. F. C. Willemsen, and V. D. Wijgert,J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 893 (1985).Google Scholar
  23. 20.
    R. Bebrisch, ed.,Sputtering by Particle Bombardment, Vols., I & II, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1981, 1983).Google Scholar
  24. 21.
    S. Vepřek, inProceedings of the International Summer School on Plasma Chemistry, S. Vepřek, ed., Atami, Japan, August 1987.Google Scholar
  25. 22.
    H. Curtins and S. Vepřek,Solid St. Commun. 57, 215 (1986).Google Scholar
  26. 23.
    M. Konuma, H. Curtins, F.-A. Sarott, and S. Vepřek,Phil. Mag. B55, 377 (1987).Google Scholar
  27. 24.
    S. Vepřek, F.-A. Sarott, and Z. Iqbal,Phys. Rev. B36, 3344 (1987).Google Scholar
  28. 25.
    E. Taglauer and W. Heiland, eds.,Inelastic Particle-Surface Collisions, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1981).Google Scholar
  29. 26.
    N. H. Tolk, M. M. Traum, J. C. Tully, and T. E. Madey, eds.,Desorption Induced by Electronic Transitions, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1983).Google Scholar
  30. 27.
    K. Ensslen and S. Vepřek,Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 7, 139 (1987).Google Scholar
  31. 28.
    S. Vepřek, F.-A. Sarotr, and S. Rambert,Surf. Sci. 189/190, 967 (1987).Google Scholar
  32. 29.
    L. Ley, H. Richter, R. Kärcher, R. L. Johnson, and J. Reichardt,J. de Physique 42, C4–753 (1981).Google Scholar
  33. 30.
    J. W. Coburn, H. F. Winters, and T. J. Chuang,J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3532 (1977).Google Scholar
  34. 31.
    D. L. Flamm and W. Donnelly,Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 1, 317 (1981).Google Scholar
  35. 32.
    S. Vepřek, A. P. Webb, H. R. Oswald, and H. Stüssi,J. Nucl. Mater. 68, 32 (1977).Google Scholar
  36. 33.
    H. F. Winters and J. W. Cobern,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3, 1376 (1985).Google Scholar
  37. 34.
    J. L. Mauer, J. S. Logan, L. B. Zielinski, and G. C. Schwartz,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 1734 (1978).Google Scholar
  38. 35.
    U. Gerlach-Mayer,Surf. Sci. 103, 524 (1981).Google Scholar
  39. 36.
    Y. Y. Tu, T. J. Chuang, and H. F. Winters,Phys. Rev. B23, 823 (1981).Google Scholar
  40. 37.
    R. A. Haring, A. Haring, F. W. Saris, and A. E. de Vries,Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 174 (1982).Google Scholar
  41. 38.
    A. W. Kolfschoten, R. A. Haring, A. Haring, and A. E. de Vries,J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3813 (1984).Google Scholar
  42. 39.
    J. Dieleman, F. H. M. Sanders, A. W. Kolfschoten, P. C. Zalm, A. E. de Vries, and A. Haring,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3, 1384 (1985).Google Scholar
  43. 40.
    D. J. Oostra, A. Haring, and A. E. de Vries,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B4, 1278 1986).Google Scholar
  44. 41.
    F. A. Houle,Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 1838 (1987).Google Scholar
  45. 42.(a)
    F. R. McFeely, J. F. Morar, and F. J. Himpsel,Surf. Sci. 165, 277 (1986).Google Scholar
  46. 42.(b)
    H. F. Winters and D. Haarer,Phys. Rev. B36, 6613 (1987).Google Scholar
  47. 43.
    M. G. J. Heijman,Plasma Chem. Plasma Process,8, 383 (1988).Google Scholar
  48. 44.
    S. Vepřek and F.-A. Sarott,Plasma. Chem. Plasma Process 2, 233 (1982).Google Scholar
  49. 45.
    M. Venugopalan and S. Vepřek, inPlasma Chemistry, Vol. IV, S. Vepřek and M. Venugopalan eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1983).Google Scholar
  50. 46.
    M. Kaldis, inCrystal Growth, Theory and Techniques, Vol. I C. H. L. Goodman, ed., Plenum Press, London (1974).Google Scholar
  51. 47.
    K. Yamashita, J. K. Gimzewski, and S. Vepřek,J. Nucl. Materials 128/129, 705 (1984).Google Scholar
  52. 48.
    J. Winter, F. G. Waelbroeck, P. Wienhold, E. Rota, and T. Banno,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A2, 90 (1984).Google Scholar
  53. 49.
    O. Auciello and R. Kelly, eds.,Ion Bombardment Modification of Surfaces, Elsevier, Amsterdam (1984).Google Scholar
  54. 50.
    G. K. Wolf,Metalloberfläche 40, 101 (1986).Google Scholar
  55. 51.
    P. D. Townsend, J. C. Kelly, and N. E. W. Hartley,Ion Implantation, Sputtering and their Applications, Academic Press, London (1976).Google Scholar
  56. 52.
    W.-K. Chu, J. W. Mayer, and M.-A. Nicolet,Backscattering Spectrometry, Academic Press, New York (1978).Google Scholar
  57. 53.
    J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark,The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids, Pergamon Press, New York (1985).Google Scholar
  58. 54.
    K. G. Wolf, R. Spiegel, and K. Zucholl,Nucl. Instr. Methods in Phys. Res. B19/20, 1030, (1987).Google Scholar
  59. 55.
    B. Edenbofer,Härterei Tech. Mitteilungen 29, 105 (1974).Google Scholar
  60. 56.
    B. Edenhofer,Fachber. Oberflächentech. 12, 97 (1974).Google Scholar
  61. 57.
    R. Chaterjee-Fischer,Härterei Tech. Mitteilungen 38, 35 (1983).Google Scholar
  62. 58.
    D. J. Coates, B. Mortimer, and A. Hendry,Corrosion Sci. 22, 951, 973 (1982).Google Scholar
  63. 59.
    E. Angelini, B. De Benedetti, and F. Zucchi,Met. Ital. 11, 499 (1984).Google Scholar
  64. 60.
    M. Jurcik-Rajman and S. Vepřek,Surf. Sci. 189/190, 221 (1987).Google Scholar
  65. 61.
    C. Braganza, S. Vepřek, E. Wirz, H. Stüssi, and M. Textor,Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, S. Vepřek and J. Hertz, eds., University of Zürich, Zürich, 1979, p. 100.Google Scholar
  66. 62.
    M. Jurcik-Rajman and S. Vepřek, University of Zürich, to be published (1989).Google Scholar
  67. 63.
    T. Sugano, inProceedings of the International Summer School on Plasma Chemistry, S. Vepřek, ed., Atami, Japan, August 1987.Google Scholar
  68. 64.
    J. Mort and F. Jansen, eds.,Plasma Deposited Thin Films, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida (1986).Google Scholar
  69. 65.
    S. Vepřek, inDesign of New Materials, D. L. Cocke and A. Clearfield, eds., Plenum, New York (1987).Google Scholar
  70. 66.
    S. Vepřek, F.-A. Sarott, and Z. Iqbal,Phys. Rev. B36, 3344 (1987).Google Scholar
  71. 67.
    S. Vepřek,Thin Solid Films 130, 135 (1985).Google Scholar
  72. 68.
    S. Vepřek,Less Common Metals 137, 367 (1988).Google Scholar
  73. 69.
    W. E. Spear and P. Le Comber,Solid State Commun. 17, 1193 (1975).Google Scholar
  74. 70.
    W. E. Spear and P. Le Comber,Phil. Mag. B33, 935 (1976).Google Scholar
  75. 71.
    N. F. Mott and E. A. Davis,Electronic Processes in Non-Crystalline Materials, 2nd ed., Clarendon Press, Oxford (1979).Google Scholar
  76. 72.
    Y. Kuwano, in ref. (64),. p. 161.Google Scholar
  77. 73.
    M. Matsumura, in ref. (64), p. 205.Google Scholar
  78. 74.
    K. Kempter, inFestkörperprobleme, Vol. 27, F. Vieweg & Sohn, Wiesbaden, F.R.G., p. 279 (1987).Google Scholar
  79. 75.
    J. J. Wagner and S. Vepřek,Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 2, 95 (1982);3, 219 (1983).Google Scholar
  80. 76.
    K. Ensslen and S. Vepřek,Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 7, 139 (1987).Google Scholar
  81. 77.
    F. J. Kampas and R. W. Griffith,Appl. Phys. Lett 39, 407 (1981).Google Scholar
  82. 78.
    S. Vepřek and F.-A. Sarott,Proceedings of the International Symposium on Trends and New Applications in Thin Films, Strasbourg, March 1987, The Societe Francaise du Vide, Paris (1987).Google Scholar
  83. 79.
    J. C. Knights,Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 38, 371 (1985).Google Scholar
  84. 80.
    J. C. Tsai, J. C. Knights, G. Chang, and B. Wacker,J. Appl. Phys. 59, 2998 (1986).Google Scholar
  85. 81.
    J. C. Knights, C. C. Tsai, and J. Shaw,European MRS Meeting Strasbourg, June 1987, Les ed. d. Physique. Les Ulis (1987), p. 349.Google Scholar
  86. 82.
    J. Petrin, in ref. (81),European MRS Meeting Strasbourg, June 1987, Les ed. d. Physique. Les Ulis (1987), p. 105.Google Scholar
  87. 83.
    A. Matsuda,Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium Plasma Chemistry, Tokyo, September 1987, p. 1472.Google Scholar
  88. 84.
    S. Vepřek, M. Heintze, F.-A. Sarott, and P. Willmott,Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 118, 3 (1988).Google Scholar
  89. 85.
    D. L. Flamm and V. M. Donnelly,Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 1, 317 (1981).Google Scholar
  90. 86.
    J. W. Coburn,Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 2, 1 (1982).Google Scholar
  91. 87.
    I. C. Plumb and K. R. Ryan,Plasma Chem. Plasma Process. 6, 205, 231, 247 (1986).Google Scholar
  92. 88.
    C. J. Mogab, inVLSI Technology, S. M. Sze, ed., McGraw-Hill, Auckland (1983), p. 303.Google Scholar
  93. 89.
    N. G. Einspruch and D. M. Brown, eds.VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Vol. 8, Plasma Processing for VLSI, Academic Press, Orlando (1984).Google Scholar
  94. 90.
    D. I. Flamm and J. A. Mucha, inThe Chemistry of Semiconductor Industry, S. J. Moss and A. Ledwith, eds. Blackie, Glasgow (1987).Google Scholar
  95. 91.
    H. W. Lehmann, inThe Physics and Fabrication of Microstructures and Microdevices, Springer Proc. Phys.13, 65 (1986).Google Scholar
  96. 92.
    P. C. Zalm,Vacuum,36, 787 (1986).Google Scholar
  97. 93.
    J. W. Coburn and H. F. Winters,Ann. Rev. Mater. Sci. 13, 91 (1983).Google Scholar
  98. 94.
    Y. Horiike, in ref.(21),Proceedings of the International Summer School on Plasma Chemistry, S. Vecřek, ed. Atami, Japan, August, August 1987. p. 351.Google Scholar
  99. 95.
    S. Matsuo and M. Kikuchi,Japan. J. Appl. Phys. 22, L210 (1983).Google Scholar
  100. 96.
    G. Comsa and R. David,Surf. Sci. 5, 145 (1985).Google Scholar
  101. 97.
    S. Vepřek,Proceedings of the Winter European Course on Amorphous Silicon, Folgaria, Italy, February 1988, W. E. Spear and C. Manfredotti, eds., p. 3.Google Scholar
  102. 98.
    G. S. Oehrlein, R. M. Tromp, J. C. Tsang, Y. H. Lee, and E. J. Petrillo,J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 1441 (1985).Google Scholar
  103. 99.
    G. S. Oehrlein,J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3053 (1986).Google Scholar
  104. 100.
    G. S. Oehrlein and Y. H. Lee,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A5, 1585 (1987).Google Scholar
  105. 101.
    K. Yamashita, J. K. Gimzewski, and S. Vepřek,J. Nucl. Materials 128/129, 705 (1984).Google Scholar
  106. 102.
    M. Komuma, M. Singh, S. Subramanian, J. Werner, and E. Bauser,Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry, Tokyo, 1987, p. 1663.Google Scholar
  107. 103.
    J. D. Meindl,Solid St. Technol. 30, 84 (1987).Google Scholar
  108. 104.
    S. Vepřek,Pure Appl. Chem. 48, 163 (1976);54, 1197 (1982).Google Scholar
  109. 105.
    G. Smolinsky, R. P. Chang, and T. M. Mayer,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 18, 12 (1981).Google Scholar
  110. 106.
    V. M. Donnlly, D. L. Flamm, C. W. Tu, and D. E. Ibbotson,J. Electrochem Soc. 129, 2533 (1982).Google Scholar
  111. 107.
    G. Smolinsky, R. A. Gottscho, and S. M. Abys.J. Appl. Phys. 54, 3518 (1983).Google Scholar
  112. 108.
    R. A. Gottscho, G. Smolinsky, and R. H. Burton,J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5908 (1982).Google Scholar
  113. 109.
    S. Semura, H. Saitoh, and K. Asakawa,J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3131 (1984).Google Scholar
  114. 110.
    S. C. McNevin,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B4, 1203, 1216 (1986).Google Scholar
  115. 111.
    J. Z. Li, I. Adesida, and E. D. Wolf,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3, 406 (1985).Google Scholar
  116. 112.
    S. W. Pang, M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, and G. A. Lincoln,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3, 398 (1985).Google Scholar
  117. 113.
    M. S. Ameen and T. M. Mayer,J. Appl. Phys. 59, 967 (1986).Google Scholar
  118. 114.
    H. van Houten, B. J. van Wees, M. G. Heijman and J. P. André,Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1781 (1986).Google Scholar
  119. 115.
    S. W. Pang, M. W. Geis, N. N. Efremow, and G. A. Lincoln,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B3, 398 (1985).Google Scholar
  120. 116.
    S. Thomas, S. P. Beaumont, Ch. D. Wilkinson, J. Frost, and C. R. Stanley,Microelectr. Eng. 5, 249 (1986).Google Scholar
  121. 117.
    T. Venkatesan,Solid St. Technol. 30, 39 (1987).Google Scholar
  122. 118.
    D. L. Locke, M. Jurčik-Rajman, and S. Vepřek,J. Electrochem. Soc. (submitted).Google Scholar
  123. 119.
    M. Heintze and S. Vepřek,Appl. Phys. Lett. (submitted).Google Scholar
  124. 120.
    S. Vepřek, F.-A. Sarott, and S. Rambert,J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (submitted).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Vepřek
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Inorganic ChemistryUniversity of ZürichZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations