Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 31–42 | Cite as

The cognitive psychology of gambling

  • Mark D. Griffiths
Articles

Abstract

A number of recent studies have shown there may be a strong cognitive bias in explaining persistent gambling. Theories that have been put forward include the illusion of control, “cognitive regret,” biased evaluations and the “psychology of the near miss.” Two exploratory studies examining the acquisition, development and maintenance of gambling behaviour involving adolescent fruit machine gamblers were carried out. Those factors which directly relate to the cognitive biases (notably erroneous beliefs about skill) during gambling activity are discussed with reference to the above cognitive influences.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (1987).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (3rd Edition-revised), Author: Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  2. Amsel, A. (1958). The role of frustrative non-reward in non-continuous reward situations.Psychological Bulletin, 55, 102–119.Google Scholar
  3. Bergler, E. (1957).The psychology of gambling. Hill and Wang: New York.Google Scholar
  4. Blaszczynski, A.P., McConaghy, N. & Winter, S.W. (1986). Plasma endorphin levels in pathological gambling.Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 3–14.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, R.I.F. (1986). Arousal and sensation seeking components in the general explanation of gambling and gambling addictions.International Journal of the Addictions, 21, 1001–1016.Google Scholar
  6. Freud, S. (1928). Dostoyevsky and parracide. In J. Strachey (Ed.).The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud, 21, 177–121. Hogarth Press: London.Google Scholar
  7. Furnham, A. & Lewis, A. (1983).The economic mind. Harvester Press: London.Google Scholar
  8. Gaboury, A. & Ladouceur, R. (1988).Erroneous perceptions and gambling. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  9. Gilovich, T. (1983). Biased evaluations and persistence in gambling.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 1110–1126.Google Scholar
  10. Gilovich, T. & Douglas, C. (1986). Biased evaluations of randomly determined gambling outcomes.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22, 228–241.Google Scholar
  11. Goffman, E. (1967).Interaction ritual. Anchor: New York.Google Scholar
  12. Greenberg, H. (1980). Psychology of gambling. In Kaplan, H.I., Feedman, A.M., and Sadcock, B.J. (Eds.):Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry, 3rd Edition. New York: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  13. Griffiths, M.D. (1988a, September).The acquisition, development and maintenance of fruit machine gambling in adolescents. Paper presented at the Social Psychology Section Conference, British Psychological Society, University of Kent, Canterbury.Google Scholar
  14. Griffiths, M.D. (1988b). Fruit machine gambling in addicted adolescents.Society for the Study of Gambling Newsletter, 14, 17–19.Google Scholar
  15. Griffiths, M.D. (1989). Gambling in children and adolescents.Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 66–83.Google Scholar
  16. Henslin, J.M. (1967). Craps and magic.American Journal of Sociology, 73, 316–330.Google Scholar
  17. Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1982). The psychology of preferences.Scientific American, January, 136–142.Google Scholar
  18. Ladouceur, R. & Gaboury, A. (1988). Effects of limited and unlimited stakes on gambling behavior.Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 119–126.Google Scholar
  19. Ladouceur, R., Gaboury, A., Dumont, M. and Rochette, P. (1988). Gambling: Relationship between the frequency of wins and irrational thinking.Journal of Psychology, 122, 409–414.Google Scholar
  20. Ladouceur, R. & Mireault, M. (1988). Gambling behaviors among high school students in the Quebec area.Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 3–12.Google Scholar
  21. Langer, E.J. (1975). The illusion of control.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 311–328.Google Scholar
  22. Langer, E.J. & Roth, J. (1975). The illusion of control as a function of the sequence of outcomes in a purely chance task.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 951–955.Google Scholar
  23. Lesieur, H.R. & Klein, R. (1987). Pathological gambling among high school students.Addictive Behaviors, 12, 129–135.Google Scholar
  24. Loftus, G.R. & Loftus, E.K. (1983).Mind at play. Basic Books: New York.Google Scholar
  25. Oldman, D. (1974). Chance and skill: A study of roulette.Sociology, 8, 407–426.Google Scholar
  26. Reid, R.L. (1986). The psychology of the near miss.Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 32–39.Google Scholar
  27. Skinner, B.F. (1953).Science and human behavior. Macmillan: New York.Google Scholar
  28. Strickland, L.H., Lewicki, R.J. & Katz, A.M. (1966). Temporal orientation and perceived control as determinants of risk-taking.Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 2, 143–151.Google Scholar
  29. Stumphauzer, J.S. (1980). Learning to drink: Adolescents and alcohol.Addictive Behaviors, 5, 277–283.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Human Sciences Press 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark D. Griffiths
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Exeter, Washington Singer LaboratoriesExeterEngland

Personalised recommendations