Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 1349–1364 | Cite as

Identification and field testing of additional components of female sex pheromone of African armyworm,Spodoptera exempta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

  • A. Cork
  • J. Murlis
  • T. Megenasa


Ovipositor washings from virgin femaleSpodoptera exempta (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography (GC) linked to a male electroantennogram (EAG). GC retention times of the two major EAG responses observed were consistent with their assignment as (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate, as previously identified. However, three other EAG responses were also noted that had GC retention times consistent with (Z)-9-tetradecenal, (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-o 1, and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate. The components were present in the ratio of 100∶5∶1.5∶3.5∶4, respectively. Further analysis of the ovipositor washings by GC linked to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) confirmed these findings and indicated the presence of a sixth component consistent with (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate present at 2 % of the major component. In field tests carried out in Kenya, (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate was the only newly identified component to enhance the catch of the original two-component mixture when presented in their natural ratio. The addition of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol reduced catch, while (Z)-9-tetradecenal and (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate had no apparent effect.

Key words

Spodoptera exempta Lepidoptera Noctuidae sex pheromone (Z)-9-tetradecenal (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z)-11-tetradecenyl acetate (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Cork
    • 1
  • J. Murlis
    • 2
  • T. Megenasa
    • 3
  1. 1.Overseas Development Natural Resources InstituteChathamUK
  2. 2.Department of the EnvironmentRomney HouseLondonUK
  3. 3.Desert Locust Control Organisation for East AfricaNairobiKenya

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