Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 13, Issue 6, pp 1409–1417 | Cite as

Efficacy of pine oil as repellent to wildlife

  • Christina M. Bell
  • Alton S. Rarestad


Pine oil, a by-product of the pulp industry, is a feeding repellent to snowshoe hares and voles. In pen trials with snowshoe hares and field trials with voles, when given a choice between food in a pine oil-treated bowl and a control bowl, the animals fed preferentially from the control bowl. When the hares were presented with food only in a pine oil-treated bowl, two hares showed a reduced rate of food consumption and one hare did not feed at all. Pine oil contains monoterpenes which may inhibit microbial symbionts in the digestive tracts of hares and voles. The repellent action of pine oil is likely based on this interference of digestive processes, and it is of adaptive advantage for cecal digestors to avoid it. Pine oil has potential as a commercial repellent for snowshoe hares and voles.

Key words

wildlife damage snowshoe hare Lepus americanus Townsend vole Microtus townsendii pine oil repellents seedling protection 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christina M. Bell
    • 1
  • Alton S. Rarestad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

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