Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 11, Issue 11, pp 1567–1582 | Cite as

Effects of ferulic andp-coumaric acids in nutrient culture of cucumber leaf expansion as influenced by pH

  • Udo Blum
  • Barry R. Dalton
  • Jodi R. Shann
Article

Abstract

Cucumber seedlings were grown in 5 mM MES [2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid] -buffered nutrient solutions adjusted to a pH of 5.5, 6.25, or 7.0. Nutrient solutions were changed on alternate days. Seedlings were treated for a two-day period with various concentrations (0–1 mM) of ferulic acid,p-coumaric acid, or mixtures of these phenolic acids when 16 days old. Leaf growth, dry weight, and water utilization of the seedlings; pH of the solutions; and disappearance of the phenolic acids from nutrient solutions were monitored. Leaf area expansion of cucumber seedlings was inhibited by both ferulic andp-coumaric acid, and the magnitude of these inhibitions was influenced by concentration and pH. Inhibition of leaf area expansion was greater at pH 5.5 and nominal at pH 7.O. Ferulic acid was more inhibitory thanp-coumaric acid. The effect of pH on growth was best described by data for mean relative rates of leaf expansion. For example, the mean relative rates of leaf expansion by both acids at 0.5 mM for the 16- to 18-day growth period (treatment period) were reduced by 45, 31, and 8% for the pH 5.5, 6.25, and 7.0 treatments, respectively. The dry weight of seedlings at harvest (day 22) was significantly reduced for seedlings grown in the pH 5.5 and 6.25 treatments, but not for the pH 7.0 treatment. There was, however, one exception; the dry weight of seedlings treated withp-coumaric acid solutions adjusted to a pH of 5.5 was not significantly reduced. Water utilization by the seedlings was reduced by both ferulic andp-coumaric acid. Again, the impact of ferulic acid was greater thanp-coumaric acid. The effect of ferulic acid on water utlization decreased with increasing pH of the nutrient solution. The pH effects were not so consistent forp-coumaric acid. The effects of equimolar mixtures of the two phenolic acids were additive for all variables measured. There was a linear correlation between mean relative rates of leaf expansion and water utilization.

Key words

Ferulic acid p-coumaric acid allelopathy pH leaf area expansion phytotoxins water utilization cucumber seedlings Cucumus sativus 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blum, U., andDalton, B.R. 1985. Effects of ferulic acid, an allelopathic compound, on leaf expansion of cucumber seedlings grown in nutrient culture.J. Chem. Ecol. 11:279–301.Google Scholar
  2. Blum, U., andDalton, B.R., andRawlings, J.O. 1984. Effects of ferulic acid and some of its microbial products on radicle growth of cucumber.J. Chem. Ecol. 10:1169–1191.Google Scholar
  3. Blum, U., andDalton, B.R., andShann, J.R. 1985. Effects of various mixtures of ferulic acid and some of its microbial metabolic products on cucumber leaf expansion and dry matter in nutrient culture.J Chem. Ecol. 11:619–641.Google Scholar
  4. Einhellig, F.A., andKuan, L. 1971. Effects of scopoletin and chlorogenic acid on stomatal aperture in tobacco and sunflower.Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 98:155–162.Google Scholar
  5. Einhellig, F.A., andMuth, M.S. 1980. Ferulic acid interference with water metabolism in grain sorghum.Proc. S.D. Acad. Sci. 59:276.Google Scholar
  6. Harper, J.R. andBalke, N.E. 1981. Characterization of the inhibition of K+ absorption in oat roots by salicylic acid.Plant Physiol. 68:1349–1353.Google Scholar
  7. Hoagland, D.R., andArnon, D.I. 1950. The water-culture method of growing plants without soil. Calif. Agric. Exp. Stn. Circ. 347.Google Scholar
  8. Hughes, G.R.,Averre, C.W., andSorensen, K.A. 1983. Growing Pickling Cucumbers in North Carolina. Agricultural Extension Service Bull. AG-315.Google Scholar
  9. Patterson, D.T. 1981. Effects of allelopathic chemicals on growth and physiological responses of soybean (Glycine max).Weed Sci. 29:53–59.Google Scholar
  10. Rice, E.L. 1984. Allelopathy. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida.Google Scholar
  11. Sas Institute Inc. 1982. SAS User's Guide: Statistics, 1982 ed. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina.Google Scholar
  12. Whitehead, D.C. 1964. Identification ofp-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic,p-coumaric and ferulic acids in soils.Nature 202:417–418.Google Scholar
  13. Whitehead, D.C., Dibb, H., andHartley, R.D. 1981. Extractant pH and the release of phenolic compounds from soils, plant roots and leaf litter.Soil Biol. Biochem. 13:343–348.Google Scholar
  14. Whitehead, D.C., Dibb, H., andHartley, R.D. 1982. Phenolic compounds in soil and influenced by the growth of different plant species.J. Appl. Ecol. 19:579–588.Google Scholar
  15. Whitehead, D.C., Dibb, H., andHartley, R.D. 1983. Bound phenolic compounds in water extracts of soils, plant roots and leaf litter.Soil Biol. Biochem. 15:133–136.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Udo Blum
    • 1
  • Barry R. Dalton
    • 1
  • Jodi R. Shann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BotanyNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleigh

Personalised recommendations