The Histochemical Journal

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 587–599 | Cite as

The histochemistry of complex carbohydrates in certain organs of homozygous brachymorphic (bm/bm) mice

  • K. Yamada
  • S. Shimizu
  • K. S. Brown
  • K. Kimata


Homozygous brachymorphic (bm/bm) mice are characterized by disproportionately short stature and by undersulphated proteochondroitin sulphate in cartilage with a defect in the synthesis of the sulphate donor (3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulphate: PAPS). In adult mice of this mutant strain, several organs have been examined by light microscopical methods of complex carbohydrate histochemistry, in comparison with those from control (C57BL/6J) mice of comparable ages. The organs included the trachea, aorta, skin, stomach colon and cornea. In the nutant mice, connective tissue elements and components of epithelial tissues exhibited apparently weaker positive reactions for ester sulphate groupings of complex carbohydrates, as compared with those in the control mice. From these results, it is concluded that the undersulphation in complex carbohydrates is widespread throughout the connective and epithelial tissues of the mutant mice.


Mutant Strain Mutant Mouse Adult Mouse Positive Reaction Short Stature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barrnett, R. J. &Seligman, M. A. (1958) Histochemical demonstration of protein bound alpha-acylamido carboxyl groups.J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 4, 169–76.Google Scholar
  2. Casselman, W. G. B. (1959) Carbohydrates.Histochemical Technique, pp. 91–109. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.Google Scholar
  3. Greene, R. M., Brown, K. S. &Pratt, R. M. (1978). Autoradiographic analysis of altered glycosaminoglycan synthesis in the epiphyseal cartilage of neonatal brachymorphic mice.Anat. Rec. 191, 19–30.Google Scholar
  4. Lane, P. W. &Dickie, M. M. (1968). Three recessive mutations producing disproportionate dwarfing in mice.J. Hered. 59, 300–8.Google Scholar
  5. Leppi, T. J. (1968) Morphochemical analysis of mucous cells in the skin and slime glands of hagfishes.Histochemie 15, 68–78.Google Scholar
  6. Leppi, T. J. &Stoward, P. J. (1965) On the use of testicular hyaluronidase for identifying acid mucins in tissue sections.J. Histochem. Cytochem. 13, 406–7.Google Scholar
  7. Lev, R. &Spicer, S. S. (1964) Specific staining of sulphate groups with alcian blue at low pH.J. Histochem. Cytochem. 12, 309.Google Scholar
  8. Lillie, R. D. &Fullmer, H. M. (1976) Fixation. InHistopathologic, Technic and Practical Histochemistry, 4th edn. pp. 25–63. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  9. Orkin, R. W., Pratt, R. M. &Martin, G. R. (1976) Undersulfated chondroitin sulfate in the cartilage matrix of brachymorphic mice.Devl Biol. 50, 82–94.Google Scholar
  10. Orkin, R. W., Williams, B. R., Cranley, R. E., Poppke, D. C. &Brown, K. S. (1977) Defects in the cartilaginous growth plates of brachymorphic mice.J. Cell Biol. 73, 287–99.Google Scholar
  11. Pearse, A. G. E. (1968) Proteins and amino acids. InHistochemistry, Theoretical and Applied. Vol. 1, 3rd edn, pp. 106–179. Edinburgh, London, New York: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  12. Pennypacker, J. R., Kimata, K. &Brown, K. S. (1981) Brachymorphic mice (bm/bm): A generalized biochemical defect expressed primarily in cartilage.Devl Biol. 81, 280–7.Google Scholar
  13. Schwartz, N. B., Ostrowski, V., Brown, K. S. &Pratt, R. M. (1978) Defective PAPS synthesis in epiphyseal cartilage from brachymorphic mice.Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 82, 173–8.Google Scholar
  14. Spicer, S. S. (1965) Diamine methods for differentiating mucosubstances histochemically.J. Histochem. Cytochem. 13, 211–34.Google Scholar
  15. Spicer, S. S., Horn, R. G. &Leppi, T. J. (1967) Histochemistry of connective tissue mucopolysaccharides. InThe Connective Tissue (edited byWagner, B. M. andSmith, D. E.), pp. 251–303. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  16. Sugahara, K. &Schwartz, N. B. (1979) Defect in 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate formation in brachymorphic mice.Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76, 6615–8.Google Scholar
  17. Sugahara, K. &Schwartz, N. B. (1981) Tissue distribution of defective PAPS synthesis and the decreased sulfoconjugation of a phenolic compound in brachymorphic mice. InProceedings of the International Symposium on Glycoconjugates 1981 (edited byYamakawa, T., Osawa, T. &Handa, S.), pp. 493–4. Tokyo: Japan Scientific Societies Press.Google Scholar
  18. Sugahara, K. &Schwartz, N. B. (1982a) Defect in 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate synthesis in brachymorphic mice. I. Characterization of the defect.Archs Biochem. Biophys. 241, 589–601.Google Scholar
  19. Sugahara, K. &Schwartz, N. B. (1982b) 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphosulfate synthesis in brachymorphic mice. II. Tissue distribution of the defect.Archs Biochem. Biophys. 214, 602–9.Google Scholar
  20. Yamada, K. (1972) Histochemical and cytochemical methods for the studies of mucosaccharides.Prot. Nucl. Acid Enzy. 17, 775–90.Google Scholar
  21. Yamada, K. (1973) The effect of digestion withStreptomyces hyaluronidase upon certain histochemical reactions of hyaluronic acid-containing tissues.J. Histochem. Cytochem. 21, 794–803.Google Scholar
  22. Yamada, K. (1974) The effect of digestion with chondroitinases upon certain histochemical reactions of mucosaccharide-containing tissues.J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22, 266–75.Google Scholar
  23. Yamada, K. (1975) Proteins. In:New Histochemistry (edited byOgawa, K., Takeuchi, T. andMori, T.), pp. 439–67. Tokyo: Asakura-shoten.Google Scholar
  24. Yamada, K. &Hirano, K. (1973) The histochemistry of hyaluronic acid-containing mucosubstances.J. Histochem. Cytochem. 21, 469–72.Google Scholar
  25. Yamada, K. &Shimizu, S. (1976) Concanavalin A-peroxidase-diaminobenzidine (Con A-PO-DAB)-Alcian Blue (AB). A reliable method for dual staining of complex carbohydrates.Histochemistry 47, 159–69.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Yamada
    • 1
  • S. Shimizu
    • 2
  • K. S. Brown
    • 3
  • K. Kimata
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyNagoya City University Medical SchoolNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Laboratory of Ultrastructure ResearchAichi Cancer Center Research InstituteNagoyaJapan
  3. 3.Laboratory of Developmental Biology and Abnormalities, National Institute of Dental ResearchNational Institute of HealthBethesdaU.S.A.
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations