Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 173–180 | Cite as

Blepharospasm: A case study comparison of trihexyphenidyl (Artane) versus EMG biofeedback

  • Phillip J. Brantley
  • C. L. M. CarnrikeJr.
  • Michael E. Faulstich
  • Charles A. Barkemeyer


Blepharospasm is a chronic condition characterized by involuntary spasmodic closure of the eyelid(s). The present investigation empirically evaluated the relative efficacies of a current pharmacological and a psychological approach in the treatment of blepharospasm. An A-B-A-C-A single-case design was used to compare trihexyphenidyl [Artane] with EMG biofeedback. EMG activity in the frontalis muscle and number of eyeblinks were the dependent variables. The results indicated that Artane had no effect on either dependent measure and that biofeedback had a dramatic treatment effect on both dependent variables. Treatment gains were maintained at a 42-week follow-up. These results are discussed in light of the methodological considerations, the efficacy of psychological intervention, and the need for future research.

Descriptor Key Words

blepharospasm biofeedback frontalis muscle spasmodic blinking trihexyphenidyl Artane 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phillip J. Brantley
    • 2
  • C. L. M. CarnrikeJr.
    • 2
  • Michael E. Faulstich
    • 1
  • Charles A. Barkemeyer
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Alabama in BirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Louisiana State UniversityUSA

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