Skip to main content

Reservation prices, resistance points, and BATNAs: Determining the parameters of acceptable negotiated outcomes

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  • Bazerman, M., Neale, M., Valley, K., Kim, Y., andZajac, E. (In press). “The impact of agents and mediators on negotiator behavior.”Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

  • Darley, J. andFazio, R. (1980). “Expectancy confirmation processes arising in the social interaction sequence.”American Psychologist 35: 867–881.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Einhorn, H. andHogarth, R. (1978). “Confidence in judgment: Persistence illusion of validity.”Psychological Review 85: 395–416.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fisher, R. andUry, W. L. (1981).Getting to YES. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

    Google Scholar 

  • Guth, W., Schmittberger, P., andSchwarze, B. (1982). “An experimental analysis of ultimatum bargaining.”Journal of Economic Behavior and Organizations 3: 367–388.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., andTversky, A. (1982).Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Kruglanski, A. andFreund, T. (1983). “The freezing and unfreezing of lay inferences: Effects on impressional primacy, ethnic stereotyping, and numerical anchoring.”Journal of Experimental Psychology 19: 448–468.

    Google Scholar 

  • Loewenstein, G., Thompson, L., andBazerman, M. (1989). “Social utility and decision making in interpersonal contexts.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 426–441.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Myerson, R. andSatterthwaite, M. (1983). “Efficient mechanisms for bilateral trading.”Journal of Economic Theory 29: 265–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nash, J. F. (1950). “The bargaining problem.”Econometrica 18: 155–162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Neale, M. A. andBazerman, M. H. (1991).Cognition and rationality in negotiation. New York: Free Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pinkley, R., Neale, M., andBennett, R. (In press). “Alternatives, reservation prices, and outcomes: The impact of alternatives to settlement in dyadic negotiations.”Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

  • Raiffa, H. (1982).The art and science of negotiation. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Taylor, S. andBrown, J. (1988). “Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health.”Psychology Bulletin 103: 193–210.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Walton, R. E. andMcKersie, R. B. (1965).A behavioral theory of labor negotiations. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

Download references


Additional information

Sally Blount White is a negotiations instructor and doctoral candidate at the Kellogg Graduate School of Management, Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill., 60208.Margaret A. Neale is the Helen and J. L. Kellogg Distinguished Professor of Dispute Resolution and Organizations at the Kellogg School.

The ideas for this article were inspired by early conversations with Robin Pinkley and supported by the Dispute Resolution Research Center at Northwestern University. The authors would like to thank an anonymous reviewer for his comments on an earlier draft of this article.

About this article

Cite this article

White, S.B., Neale, M.A. Reservation prices, resistance points, and BATNAs: Determining the parameters of acceptable negotiated outcomes. Negot J 7, 379–388 (1991).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Reservation Price
  • Actual Negotiation
  • Negotiation Journal
  • Negotiate Agreement
  • Game Theoretic Analysis