Advertisement

Neurochemical Research

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 367–370 | Cite as

Effects of palmitate on astrocyte amino acid contents

  • Marc Yudkoff
  • Itzhak Nissim
  • Ilana Nissim
  • Janet Stern
  • David Pleasure
Original Articles

Abstract

The effects of palmitate on intracellular and extracellular amino acid concentrations of cultured astrocytes was studied. Exposure of astrocytes to either 0.72 mM or 0.36 mM palmitate was associated with a significant reduction in the intracellular pool of glutamine and taurine. In contrast, the intracellular concentration of histidine, glycine, citrulline, isoleucine and leucine were increased in the presence of 0.72 mM palmitate. Comparable changes in the extracellular amino acid pool were not observed. The data suggest that palmitic acid, which accumulates in the brain during periods of anoxia, alters the metabolism of several amino acids in cultured astrocytes. These changes may be of significance in terms of the pathophysiology of a stress such as anoxia.

Key Words

Palmitate amino acids astrocytes anoxia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Miller, J. C., Gnaedinger, J. M., and Rapoport, S. I. 1987. Utilization of plasma fatty acid in rat brain: distribution of [14C]palmitate between oxidative and synthetic pathways. J. Neurochem. 49:1507–1514.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Morand, O., Baumann, N., and Bourre, J. M. 1979. In vivo incorporation of exogenous [1-14C]stearic acid into neurons and astrocytes. Neurosci. Lett.: 13, 177–181.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morand, O., Masson, M., Baumann, N., and Bourre, J. M. 1981. Exogenous [1-14C]lignoceric acid uptake by neurons, astrocytes and myelin, as compared to incorporation of [1-14C]palmitic and stearic acids. Neurochem. Int. 3:329–334.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dhopeshwarkar, G. A., Subramanian, C., and Mead, J. F. 1973. Metabolism of [1-14C]palmitic acid in the developing brain: persistence of radioactivity in the carboxyl carbon. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 296:257–264.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yang, S. Y., He, X. Y., and Schulz, H. 1987. Fatty acid oxidation in rat brain is limited by the low activity of 3-ketoacylcoenzyme A thiolase. J. Biol. Chem. 262:13027–13032.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pardridge, W. M., and Mietus, L. J. 1980. Palmitate and cholesterol transport through the blood-brain barrier. J. Neurochem. 34:463–466.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Spector, R. 1988. Fatty acid transport through the blood-brain barrier. J. Neurochem. 50:639–643.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bazan, N. G. 1970. Effects of ischemia and electroconvulsive shock on free fatty acid pool in the brain. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 218:1–10.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bazan, N. G., deBazan, H. E. P., Kennedy, W. G., and Joel, C. D. 1971. Regional distribution and rate of production of free fatty acids in rat brain. J. Neurochem. 18:1387–1393.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buxton, D. B., Barron, L., Taylor, M. K., and Olson, M. 1984. Regulatory effects of fatty acids on decarboxylation of leucine and 4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate in the perfused rat heart. Biochem. J. 221:593–599, 1984Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Paul, H. S., and Adibi, S. A. 1976. Assessment of effect of starvation, glucose, fatty acids and hormones on alpha-decarboxylation of leucine in skeletal muscle of rat. J. Nutr. 106:1079–1088Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hertz, L., Yu, A. C. H., Potter, R. L., Fisher, T. E. and Schousboe, A. 1983. Metabolic fluxes from glutamate and towards glutamate in neurons and astrocytes in primary cultures, in Glutamine, Glutamate and GABA in the Central Nervous System (Hertz, L., Kvamme, E., McGeer, E. G., and Schousboe, A., eds), pp. 327–342, Alan R. Liss, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martinez-Hernandez, A., Bell, K. P., and Norenberg, M. D. 1977. Glutamine synthetase: glial localization in brain. Science 195:1356–1358Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yu, A. C. H., Chan, P. H., and Fishman, R. A. 1986. Effects of arachidonic acid on glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid uptake in primary cultures of rat cerebral cortical astrocytes and neurons. J. Neurochem. 47:1181–1189.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kim, S. U., Stern, J., Kim, M. W., Pleasure, D. E. 1983. Cultures of purified rat astrocytes in serum free medium supplemented with mitogen. Brain Res. 274:79–86.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jones, B. N. and Gilligan, T. P. 1983.O-phthalaldehyde precolumn derivativation and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography of polypeptide hydrolysates and physiologic fluids. J. Chromatogr. 266:471–482Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lowry, O. H., and Passoneau, J. V. 1972. A Flexible System of Enzymatic Analysis, Academic Press, New York, pp. 194–198, 212–216Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Raabo, E., and Terkildsen, T. C. 1960. On the enzymatic determination of blood glucose. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 12:402–408Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dunnett, C. W. 1964. New tables for multiple comparisons with a control. Biometrika 42:482–491Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yudkoff, M., Nissim, I., Hummeler, K., Medow, M., Pleasure, D. 1986 Utilization of [15N]glutamate by cultured astrocytes. Biochem. J. 234:185–192.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kvamme, E., Svenneby, G., Hertz, L., and Schousboe, A. (1982). Properties of phosphate activated glutaminase in astrocytes cultured from mouse brain. Neurochem. Res. 7:761–770.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yudkoff, M., Nissim, I., and Pleasure, D. Metabolism of [15N]glutamine by cultured astrocytes: implications for the glutamate-glutamine cycle. J. Neurochem. 51:843–850Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yudkoff, M., Nissim, I., and Pleasure, D. 1987. [15N]Aspartic acid metabolism in cultured astrocytes: studies with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Biochem. J. 241:193–201Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pasantes-Morales, H., Wright, C. E., and Gaull, G. E. 1985. Taurine protection of lymphoblastoid cells from iron-ascorbate induced damage. Biochem. Pharmacol. 34:2205–2207Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kidooka, M., Matsuda, M., and Handa, J. 1987. Ca2+ antagonist and protection of the brain against ischemia. Surg. Neurol. 28:437–440Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Yudkoff
    • 1
  • Itzhak Nissim
    • 1
  • Ilana Nissim
    • 1
  • Janet Stern
    • 2
  • David Pleasure
    • 2
  1. 1.Divisions of Metabolism and Experimental NeurologyUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphia
  2. 2.Children's Hospital of PhiladelphiaUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphia

Personalised recommendations