Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 35–47 | Cite as

The factor structure of self-reported physical stress reactions

  • Jonathan C. Smith
  • Jeffrey M. Seidel
Articles

Abstract

A self-report questionnaire tapping 98 frequently reported physical stress reactions was subjected to factor analysis. The instrument was given to 1,210 subjects (593 males, 520 females, and 97 who failed to indicate their gender). The final factor solution identified 18 interpretable factors for the combined sample. Some of the more notable findings are: (a) Gastric Distress (Factor 1) is by far the most prominent factor and accounts for .491 of the total variance; (b) the factor solutions for males and females are highly similar, although Cardiorespiratory Activity (Factor 2) is defined by a greater diversity of noncardiac reactions for females than for males; and (c) six independent striated muscle tension factors can be identified for the entire sample. Results are discussed in terms of a behavioral conceptualization of psychosomatic symptoms. Clinical implications are noted.

Keywords

Striate Muscle Total Variance Factor Structure Health Psychology Clinical Implication 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Reference notes

  1. 1.
    Smith, J. C.What physical reactions are associated with stress; How well are they tapped by stress questionnaires? Manuscript subrnitted for publication, 1981.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Smith, J. C.Two dimensions of muscle tension. Unpublished manuscript, 1980. (Available from author.)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Smith, J. C.Simple vs. comprehensive relaxation training. Manuscript submitted for pubblication, 1981.Google Scholar

References

  1. 4.
    Buss, A. H. Two anxiety factors in psychiatric patients.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 1962,65 426–427.Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    Dahlstrom, W. G., Welsh, G. S., & Dahlstrom, L. E.An MMPI handbook. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1972.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    Endler, N. S., Hunt, J. McV., & Rosenstein, A. J. An S-R inventory of anxiousness.Psychological Monographs, 1962, (17, Whole No. 536).Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    Fenz, W. D., & Epstein, S. Manifest anxiety: Unifactorial or multifactorial composition.Perceptual and Motor Skills 1965,20 773–780.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    Freedman, A. M., Kaplan, H., & Sadock, B. J. (Eds.),Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry-II. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1975.Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    Friedman, A. P. Headache. In A. M. Freedman, H. Kaplan, & B. J. Sadock (Eds.),Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry-II. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1975.Google Scholar
  7. 10.
    Guthrie, G. M., Verstraete, A., Deines, M. M., & Stern, R. M. Symptoms of stress in four societies.Journal of Social Psychology 1975,95 165–172.Google Scholar
  8. 11.
    Hamilton, M. The assessment of anxiety states by rating.British Journal of Medical Psychology 1959,32 50–55.Google Scholar
  9. 12.
    Kolb, J.Modern clinical psychiatry (8th ed.). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1973.Google Scholar
  10. 13.
    Landy, F. J., & Stern, R. M. Factor analysis of a somatic perception questionnaire.Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1971,15 179–181.Google Scholar
  11. 14.
    Liebert, R. M., & Morris, L. N. Cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety: A distinction and some initial data.Psychological Reports 1967,20 975–978.Google Scholar
  12. 15.
    Miller, S. S.Symptoms. New York: Avon, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    Nie, N. H., Hull, C. H., Jenkins, J. G., Steinbrenner, K., & Bent, D. A.Statistical package for the social sciences (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.Google Scholar
  14. 17.
    O'Connor, J. P., Loor, M., & Stafford, J. W. Some patterns of manifest anxiety.Journal of Clinical Psychology 1956,12 160–163.Google Scholar
  15. 18.
    Prior, J. A., & Silberstein, J. S.Physical diagnosis. St. Louis: Mosby, 1977.Google Scholar
  16. 19.
    Random House Dictionary of the English Language, College Edition. New York: Random House, 1968.Google Scholar
  17. 20.
    Schwartz, G. E., Davidson, R. J., & Goleman, D. J. Patterning of cognitive and somatic processes in the self-regulation of anxiety: Effects of meditation versus exercise.Psychosomatic Medicine 1978,40 321–328.Google Scholar
  18. 21.
    Stern, R. M., & Higgins, J. D. Perceived somatic reactions to stress: Sex, age, and familial occurrence.Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1969,13 77–82.Google Scholar
  19. 22.
    Taylor, J. A. A personality scale of manifest anxiety.Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 1953,48 285–295.Google Scholar
  20. 23.
    Whitehead, W. E., Fedoravicius, Al. S., Blackwell, B., & Wooley, S. A behavioral conceptualization of psychosomatic illness: Psychosomatic symptoms as learned responses. In J. R. McNamara (Ed.)Behavioral approaches to medicine. New York: Plenum, 1979.Google Scholar
  21. 24.
    Zuckerman, M. Development of a situation-specific trait-state test for the prediction and measurement of affective responses.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1977,45 513–523.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan C. Smith
    • 1
  • Jeffrey M. Seidel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyRoosevelt University

Personalised recommendations