Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 385–393 | Cite as

A meta-analysis of frontalis EMG levels with biofeedback and alternative procedures

  • Christopher F. Sharpley
  • H. Jane Rogers


The lack of comparative reviews of the efficacy of EMG frontalis biofeedback versus alternative procedures for reduction of muscle tension prompted the present meta-analytic treatment of literature previously concluded to be “equivocal.” Twenty studies comparing EMG frontalis biofeedback with other tension-reduction procedures produced a total of 68 separate effect sizes suitable for meta-analysis. Differences between “clinical” and “normal” samples were nonsignificant, and data analyses revealed that EMG frontalis biofeedback was significantly superior to control (p<.05) but that alternative forms of muscle relaxation, while effective, did not reach statistical significance.

Descriptor Key Words

EMG biofeedback muscle relaxation meta-analysis 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher F. Sharpley
    • 1
  • H. Jane Rogers
    • 2
  1. 1.Monash UniversityClaytonAustralia
  2. 2.University of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

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