Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 269–282 | Cite as

Reduction of variability of EEG occipital, parietal, and central alpha rhythms by visual feedback stimulation

  • Thomas Mulholland
  • David Goodman


Two experiments, each with 24 normal right-handed adults, examined variability of the response of EEG alpha rhythms during repeated visual stimulations that were contingent on the occurrence of those rhythms. Within-trial variability of alpha durations and no-alpha (alpha blocking) durations were recorded from bipolar derivations along two bilateral posterior-anterior lines. Variability was significantly lower for: (1) the contingent EEG connected to the stimulus compared to the contralateral EEG, which was recorded simultaneously but was not connected to the stimulus; (2) occipitoparietal EEGs compared to parietocentral EEGs; (3) alpha durations compared to no-alpha durations. Differences in variability among the four EEG locations on the left or the right side were significant for contingent EEGs but not for contralateral nonconnected EEGs. The results were interpreted to be a demonstration that feedback EEG method can be applied to research on the functional topography of an EEG response to sensory stimuli in terms of the reduction of variability of the response that can be achieved with feedback.


Health Psychology Visual Feedback Sensory Stimulus Visual Stimulation Biological Psychology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beatty, J., & Legewie, H. (Eds.),Biofeedback and behavior. New York: Plenum, 1977.Google Scholar
  2. Boudrot, R., Goodman, D., & Mulholland, T. An alpha detection, feedback stimulation and data analysis system.Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation 1978,10 646–651.Google Scholar
  3. Eberlin, P., & Mulholland, T. Bilateral differences in parieto-occipital EEG induced by contingent visual feedback.Psychophysiology 1976,13 212–218.Google Scholar
  4. Friedman, M. The use of ranks to avoid the assumption of normality implicit in the analysis of variance.Journal of the American Statistical Association 1937,32 675–701.Google Scholar
  5. Goodman, D.Detection of cerebral lateralization of function using EEG alpha feedback. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angles, 1978.Google Scholar
  6. Goodman, D., Beatty, J., & Mulholland, T. Detection of cerebral lateralization of function using EEG alpha feedback.Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1980,48 418–431.Google Scholar
  7. Jasper, H., Report of the committee on methods of clinical examination in electroencephalography.Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1958,10 370–375.Google Scholar
  8. Mulholland, T., & Eberlin, P. Effect of feedback contingencies on the control of occipital alpha.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 1977,2 43–57.Google Scholar
  9. Mulholland, T., & Runnals, S. A stimulus-brain feedback system for evaluation of alertness.Journal of Psychology 1962,54 69–83.Google Scholar
  10. Mulholland, T., & Runnals, S. Cortical activation during steady and changing stimulation.Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1964,17 371–375.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Mulholland
    • 1
  • David Goodman
    • 1
  1. 1.Veterans Administration Medical Center and Boston University Medical CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations