Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 479–490 | Cite as

Neuroleptic-like electroencephalographic changes in schizophrenics through biofeedback

  • Sid J. Schneider
  • Alan T. Pope


Nine schizophrenic patients participated in a study which explored whether EEG feedback techniques could effect changes in the EEG similar to those associated with neuroleptic-induced improvement. During five sessions, each patient was presented feedback signals which continuously refected the discrepancy between characteristics of the patient's EEG power spectral profile and spectral profile characteristics associated by past research with neuroleptic induced clinical improvement. Significant within-session changes were observed for two of three EEG power spectrum bands of interest. No significant session-to-session EEG changes were observed. The results suggest that the EEG of schizophrenics can be temporarily altered, using feedback techniques, in a way that mimics the EEG changes that have been shown to occur with neuroleptic induced clinical improvement.


Power Spectrum Health Psychology Clinical Improvement Past Research Schizophrenic Patient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References notes

  1. 1.
    Munro, D. M.Algorithm: Fast Fourier transform. An application report (Biological signal analysis project). Unpublished manuscript, Engineering in Medicine Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, England, n.d.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, J., & Robins, E.Research diagnostic criteria (RDC) for a selected group of functional disorders. Instrument No. 58, New York Psychiatric Institute, 1975.Google Scholar


  1. 3.
    Beatty, J. Learned regulation of alpha and theta frequency activity in the human electroencephalogram. In G. E. Schwartz & J. Beatty (Eds.),Biofeedback: Theory and research. New York: Academic Press, 1977. Pp. 351–370.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Fink, M., Itil, T. M., & Clyde, D. The classification of psychoses by quantitative EEG measures. In J. Wortis (Ed.),Recent advances in biological psychiatry. New York: Plenum, 1966.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    Giannitrapani, D., & Kayton, L. Schizophrenia and EEG spectral analysis.EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology 1974,36 377–386.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    Hardt, J. V., & Kamiya, J. Some comments on Plotkin's self-regulation of electroencephalographic alpha.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 1976,105 100–108.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Hawkins, R. C., Doell, S. R., Lindseth, P., Jeffers, V., & Skaggs, S. Anxiety reduction in hospitalized schizophrenics through thermal biofeedback and relaxation training.Perceptual and Motor Skills 1980,51 475–482.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    Itil, T. M. Qualitative and quantitative EEG findings in schizophrenia.Schizophrenia Bulletin 1977,3 61–79.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    Itil, T. M., Saletu, B., & Davis, S. EEG findings in chronic schizophrenics based on digital computer period analysis and analog power spectra.Biological Psychiatry 1972,5 1–13.Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    Itil, T. M., Saletu, B., Davis, S., & Allen, M. Stability studies in schizophrenics and normals using computer analyzed EEG.Biological Psychiatry 1974,8 321–335.Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    Itil, T. M., Shapiro, D. M., Schneider, S. J., & Francis, I. B. Computerized EEG as a predictor of drug response in treatment resistant schizophrenics.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1981,169 629–637.Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    Kennard, M. A., & Schwartzman, A. E. A longitudinal study of electroencephalographic frequency patterns in mental hospital patients and normal controls.EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology 1957,9 263–274.Google Scholar
  11. 13.
    Leib, W., Tryon, W. W., & Stroebel, C. S. Alpha biofeedback: Fact or artifact?Psychophysiology 1976,13 541–545.Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    Lemere, F. Effects on electroencephalogram of various agents used in treating schizophrenia.Journal of Neurophysiology 1938,1 590–595.Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    Lifshitz, K., & Gradijan, J. Relationships between the coefficient of variation of the mean absolute EEG voltage and spectral intensities in schizophrenic and control subjects.Biological Psychiatry 1972,5 149–163.Google Scholar
  14. 16.
    Lynch, J. J., & Paskewitz, D. A. On the mechanisms of the feedback control of human brain wave activity.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1971,153 205–217.Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Meltzer, H. Y., & Stahl, S. M. The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: A review.Schizophrenia Bulletin 1976,2 19–76.Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    Nigl, A. J., & Jackson, B. Electromyograph biofeedback as an adjunct to standard psychiatric treatment.Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1979,40 433–436.Google Scholar
  17. 19.
    Plotkin, W. B. On the self regulation of the occipital alpha rhythm: Control strategies, states of consciousness and the role of physiological feedback.Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 1976,105 66–99.Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    Ramamurthi, B., Velmurugendran, C. U., & Srinivasan, T. M. Nonvolitional biofeedback in the management of mental illness. In W. H. Sweet, S. Obrador, & J. G. Martin-Rodriguez (Eds.),Neurosurgical treatment in psychiatry, pain and epilepsy. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1977. Pp. 309–318.Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    Sterman, M. B. Clinical implications of EEG biofeedback training: A critical appraisal. In G. E. Schwartz & J. Beatty (Eds.)Biofeedback: Theory and research. New York: Academic Press, 1977. Pp. 389–411.Google Scholar
  20. 22.
    Shagass, C. EEG and evoked potentials in the psychoses. In D. X. Freedman (Ed.),Biology of the major psychoses. New York: Raven, 1975.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sid J. Schneider
    • 1
  • Alan T. Pope
    • 1
  1. 1.Franklin Delano Roosevelt Veterans Administration HospitalMontrose

Personalised recommendations