This study compared the efficacy of five relaxation training procedures, four of which employed EMG auditory feedback: (1) biofeedback only (BF), (2) autogenic training phrases (ATP), (3) music (MU), (4) autogenic training phrases and music (ATP & MU), and (5) a control group, in developing self-regulation of a “cultivated low arousal state” as a countermeasure to tensed muscular reaction to stressful imagery. Twenty subjects established a pre- and posttraining frontalis region EMG biofeedback baseline measurement. Sixteen subjects were assigned at random to the 25-minute taped relaxation training procedure. After eight training sessions (4 weeks), MU and ATP & MU groups achieved highly significant differences when compared with the control group. The ATP & MU group attained the lowest postbaseline arousal level measured by the EMG. EMG as a physiological measure for transfer of training functioned well in detecting the psychophysiological affect of stressful imagery.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Allen, J. K., & Blanchard, E. B. (1980). Biofeedback-based stress management training with a population of business managers.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 5 427–438.
Budzynski, T. H., & Stoyva, J. M. (1969). An instrument for producing deep muscle relaxation by means of analog information feedback.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2 231–237.
Budzynski, T. H., Stoyva, J. M., & Alder, C. (1970). Feedback-induced muscle relaxation: Application to tension headaches.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1 205–211.
Candler, W. L., Jr. (1978). A comparison of externally-controlled pausing and self-controlled pausing procedures in relaxation training of anxiety neurotics (Doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, 1978).Dissertation Abstracts International 39(1-B), 01591.
Green, E., Green, A., & Walters, E. (1979). Biofeedback for mind-body self-regulation: Healing and creativity. In E. Peper, S. Ancoli, & M. Quinn (Eds.),Mind/body integration: Essential reading in biofeedback New York: Plenum Press.
Hiebert, B. A., & Fitzsimmons, G. (1981). A comparison of EMG feedback and alternative anxiety treatment programs.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 6 501–516.
Jacobson, E. (1938).Progressive relaxation (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kinsman, R. A., O'Banion, K., Robinson, S., & Staudenmayer, H. (1975). Continuous biofeedback and discrete posttrial verbal feedback in frontalis muscle relaxation training.Psychophysiology, 12 30–35.
Luthe, W. (1979). About the methods of autogenic therapy. In E. Peper, S. Ancoli, & M. Quinn (Eds.),Mind/body integration: Essential readings in biofeedback New York: Plenum Press.
Miller, R. K., & Bornstein, P. H. (1977). Thirty-minute relaxation: A comparison of some methods.Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 8 291–294.
Page, R. D., & Schaub, L. (1978). EMG biofeedback applicability for differing personality types.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34(4), 1014–1020.
Peper, E., Ancoli, S., & Quinn, M. (Eds.).Mind/body integration: Essential readings in biofeedback. New York: Plenum Press.
Schwartz, G., & Beatty, J. (1977).Biofeedback theory and research New York: Academic Press.
Sime, W. E., & DeGood, D. E. (1977). Effect of EMG biofeedback and progressive muscle relaxation training on awareness of frontalis muscle tension.Psychophysiology, 14 522–530.
Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R., & Lushene, R. (1970).State-trait anxiety inventory Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologist Press.
Stoudenmire, J. (1975). A comparison of muscle relaxation training and music in the reduction of state and trait anxiety.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31 490–492.
Stoyva, J. M., & Budzynski, T. H. (1974). Cultivated low arousal—An anti-stress response? In L. V. DiCara (Ed.),Recent advances in limbic and autonomic nervous system research New York: Plenum Press.
Taylor, J. A. (1953). A personality scale of manifest anxiety.Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 48 285–290.
Vito, E. (Harpist) (1900). Fauré.Harp recital (Vol. 3).
Yorde, B. S., & Witmer, J. M. (1980). An educational format for teaching stress management to groups with a wide range of stress symptoms.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 5 75–90.
This report is based on a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Arts in Psychology degree by the author. The author extends his gratitude to Dr. Theodore Steiner, Dr. Paul Eskildsen, and Dr. Frank Hovell, who served on the committee, and to Rosemary Kolentus, for her help with this article.
About this article
Cite this article
Reynolds, S.B. Biofeedback, relaxation training, and music: Homeostasis for coping with stress. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 9, 169–179 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00998832