Advertisement

Biofeedback and Self-regulation

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 601–617 | Cite as

Self-instructed relaxation: A therapeutic alternative

  • Bryan Hiebert
  • James Cardinal
  • Larry Dumka
  • Ronald W. Marx
Article

Abstract

A self-instructed relaxation program was compared with therapist-instructed relaxation and waiting list controls. Self-report anxiety measures (IPAT and STAI) and a psychophysiological stress profile (frontal EMG, GSR, heart rate, finger temperature monitored under relaxation and stressor conditions) were utilized pre- and posttreatment to determine efficacy. Self-monitored heart rate, respiration rate, and finger temperature were used to monitor home practice sessions. Subjects reported increased ability to relax and control stress; however, frontal EMG measured under stressor conditions was the only dependent measure to confirm this perception. No between-group differences on any other dependent measures were observed. Reliable changes on all self-monitored home practice measures were observed, suggesting that this procedure is a useful gauge of home practice.

Descriptor Key Words

relaxation stress profile stress control self-instruction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albrecht, K. (1979).Stress and the manager: Making it work for you. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  2. Antonovsky, A. (1979).Health, stress, and coping: New perspectives on mental and physical well-being. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, B. L., Cohen, D. C., & Saunders, J. T. (1973). Self-directed desensitization for acrophobics.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 11 79–89.Google Scholar
  4. Barrios, B. A., & Shigetomi, C. C. (1979). Coping-skills training for the management of anxiety: A critical review.Behavior Therapy, 10 491–522.Google Scholar
  5. Benson, H. (1975).The relaxation response. New York: Morrow.Google Scholar
  6. Blanchard, E. B., & Epstein, L. H. (1978).A biofeedback primer. Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  7. Budzynski, T. H., & Peffer, K. E. (1980). Biofeedback training. In I. L. Kutash, L. B. Schlesinger, & Associates (Eds.),Handbook on stress and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  8. Cattell, R. B. (1957).Self-analysis form. Champaign, Illinois: IPAT.Google Scholar
  9. Cattell, R. B., & Scheier, I. H. (1963).Handbook for the IPAT anxiety scale questionnaire (self-analysis form). Champaign, Illinois: IPAT.Google Scholar
  10. Cohen, J. (1965). The IPAT anxiety scale. In O. Buros (Ed.),The sixth mental measurements yearbook. Highland Park, Michigan: Gryphon.Google Scholar
  11. DeGood, D. E., & Adams, A. S. (1976). Control of cardiac response under oversize stimulation.Biofeedback and Self-Regulation, 1 373–385.Google Scholar
  12. Glasgow, R. E., & Rosen, G. M. (1978). Behavioral bibliotherapy: A review of self-help behavior therapy manuals.Psychological Bulletin, 85 1–23.Google Scholar
  13. Guilford, J. P. (1959). The IPAT anxiety scale. In O. Buros (Ed.),The fifth mental measurement yearbook. Highland Park, Michigan: Gryphon.Google Scholar
  14. Hiebert, B. (1980).Self-relaxation: Learn it, use it. Coquitlam, British Columbia: Fer Man Consultants.Google Scholar
  15. Hiebert, B. (1982).Relaxation training for student teachers. Burnaby: Simon Fraser University, Instructional Psychology Research Group, Report Number 82-04.Google Scholar
  16. Hiebert, B., & Eby, W. (1984). Relaxation training for grade 12 students.School Counselor.Google Scholar
  17. Horan, J. J. (1980). Experimentation in counseling and psychotherapy. Part I. New myths about old realities.Educational Researcher, 9 5–10.Google Scholar
  18. Kazdin, A. (1973). Court modeling and the reduction of avoidance behavior.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 81 89–95.Google Scholar
  19. Kendall, P. C., Finch, A. J., Auerbach, S. M., Hooke, J. F., & Mikeulka, P. J. (1976). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: A systematic evaluation.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44 406–472.Google Scholar
  20. Lamott, K. (1975).Escape from stress. New York: Putnam.Google Scholar
  21. Light, K. C. (1981). Cardiovascular responses to effortful active coping: Implications of the role of stress in hypertension development.Psychophysiology, 18 216–225.Google Scholar
  22. Marshal, W., Presse, L., & Andrews, W. (1976). A self-administered program for public speaking anxiety.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 14 33–39.Google Scholar
  23. Martuza, V. R. (1974). Validity of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory in an academic setting.Psychological Reports, 35 363–366.Google Scholar
  24. Mason, J. (1980).Guide to stress reduction. Cuber City, California: Peace Press.Google Scholar
  25. Meichenbaum, D. H., & Turk, D. (1976). The cognitive behavioral management of anxiety, anger and pain. In P. O. Davidson (Ed.),The behavioral management of anxiety, depression, and pain. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  26. Phillips, R. E., Johnson, G. D., & Geyer, A. (1972). Self-administered systematic desensitization.Behaviour Research and Therapy, 10 93–96.Google Scholar
  27. Rimm, D. C., & Masters, J. C. (1974).Behaviour therapy: Techniques and empirical findings. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. Rosen, G. M., Glasgow, R. E., & Barrera, M. (1976). A controlled study to assess the clinical efficacy of totally self-administered systematic desensitization.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44 208–217.Google Scholar
  29. Scheier, J. H. (1967).Recent data on IPAT anxiety tests: Information bulletin #13. Champaign, Illinois: IPAT.Google Scholar
  30. Smith, R. P. (1973). Frontalis muscle tension and personality.Psychophysiology, 10 311–312.Google Scholar
  31. Spielberger, C. D. (1968).The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  32. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., & Lushene, R. E. (1970).STAI Manual. Palo Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  33. Walker, C. E. (1975).Learn to relax: 13 ways to reduce tension. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  34. White J., & Fadiman, J. (1976).Relax: How you can feel better, reduce stress, and overcome tension. New York: Dell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bryan Hiebert
    • 1
  • James Cardinal
    • 1
  • Larry Dumka
    • 1
  • Ronald W. Marx
    • 1
  1. 1.Instructional Psychology Research Group, Faculty of EducationSimon Fraser UniversityBurnabyCanada

Personalised recommendations