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Using biofeedback to reduce left arm extensor EMG of string players during musical performance


Electromyographic (EMG) feedback offers a mechanism for helping musicians reduce specific muscle tension during performance. Nine intermediate to advanced level string players participated in a four-session, pretest/posttest design study to determine (1) if left forearm extensor EMG could be reduced using biofeedback, (2) if reductions in EMG would generalize to a no-feedback condition, and (3) if reductions in EMG would generalize from extensors to flexors. Results indicate that biofeedback did facilitate significant decreases in EMG, that the reductions in EMG did generalize to a no-feedback condition, and that generalization from extensors to flexors did not occur.

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Morasky, R.L., Reynolds, C. & Clarke, G. Using biofeedback to reduce left arm extensor EMG of string players during musical performance. Biofeedback and Self-Regulation 6, 565–572 (1981).

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  • Health Psychology
  • Muscle Tension
  • Specific Muscle
  • Advanced Level
  • Biological Psychology